Evaluating mechanism and severity of injuries among trauma patients admitted at Sina Hospital, the National Trauma Registry of Iran

Abstract
Purpose
Injuries are one of the leading causes of death and lead to a high social and financial burden. Injury patterns can vary significantly among different age groups and body regions. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mechanism of injury, patient comorbidities and severity of injuries.

Methods
The study included trauma patients from July 2016 to June 2018, who were admitted to Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran, for 2 years. The inclusion criteria were all injured patients who had at least one of the following: hospital length of stay more than 24 h, death in hospital, and transfer from the intensive care unit of another hospital. Data collection was performed using the National Trauma Registry of Iran (NTRI) minimum dataset.

Results
The most common injury mechanism was road traffic injuries (49.0%), followed by falls (25.5%). The mean age of those who fell was significantly higher in comparison with other mechanisms (p < 0.001). Severe extremity injuries occurred more often in the fall group than in the vehicle collision group (69.0% vs. 43.5%, p < 0.001). Moreover, cases of severe multiple trauma were higher amongst vehicle collisions than injuries caused by falls (27.8% vs. 12.9%, p = 0.003). Conclusion Comparing falls with motor vehicle collisions, patients who fell were older and sustained more extremity injuries. Patients injured by motor vehicle collision were more likely to have sustained multiple trauma than those presenting with falls. Recognition of the relationship between mechanisms and consequences of injuries may lead to more effective interventions.

Using modified Delphi method to propose and validate components of child injury surveillance system for Iran

Purpose
Child injuries are a public health concern globally. Injury Surveillance Systems (ISSs) have a beneficial impact on child injury prevention. There is a need for evidence-based consensus on frameworks to establish child ISSs. This research aims to investigate the key components of a child ISS for Iran and to propose a framework for implementation.

Methods
Data were gathered through interview with experts using unstructured questions from January 2017 to December 2018 to identify child ISS functional components. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis method. Then, modified Delphi method was used to validate the functional components. Based on the outcomes of the content analysis, a questionnaire with closed questions was developed to be presented to a group of experts. Consensus was achieved in two rounds.

Results
In round one, 117 items reached consensus. In round two, 5 items reached consensus and were incorporated into final framework. Consensus was reached for 122 items comprising the final framework and representing 7 key components: goals of the system, data sources, data set, coalition of stakeholders, data collection, data analysis and data distribution. Each component consisted of several sub-components and respective elements.

Conclusion
This agreed framework will assist in standardizing data collection, analysis and distribution to detect child injury problems and provide evidence for preventive measures.

Musculoskeletal trauma services in Uganda.

Approximately 2000 lives are lost in Uganda annually through road traffic accidents. In Kampala, they account for 39% of all injuries, primarily in males aged 16-44 years. They are a result of rapid motorization and urbanization in a country with a poor economy. Uganda’s population is an estimated 28 million with a growth rate of 3.4% per year. Motorcycles and omnibuses, the main taxi vehicles, are the primary contributors to the accidents. Poor roads and drivers compound the situation. Twenty-three orthopaedic surgeons (one for every 1,300,000 people) provide specialist services that are available only at three regional hospitals and the National Referral Hospital in Kampala. The majority of musculoskeletal injuries are managed nonoperatively by 200 orthopaedic officers distributed at the district, regional and national referral hospitals. Because of the poor economy, 9% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Patients with musculoskeletal injuries in Uganda frequently fail to receive immediate care due to inadequate resources and most are treated by traditional bonesetters. Neglected injuries typically result in poor outcomes. Possible solutions include a public health approach for prevention of road traffic injuries, training of adequate human resources, and infrastructure development.