International Collaboration in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Framework for Establishing Meaningful International Alliances

Despite the increase in utilization of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) throughout high-income countries, there is a lack of access to basic surgical care, including TJA, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Multiple strategies, including short-term surgical trips, establishment of local TJA centers, and education-based international academic collaborations, have been used to bridge the gap in access to quality TJA. The authors review the obstacles to providing TJA in LMICs, the outcomes of the 3 strategies in use to bridge gaps, and a framework for the establishment and maintenance of meaningful international collaborations.