Review of antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of surgical site infection in low and middle income countries (LMICs)

Background
The Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG) is supporting two hospitals in Ghana via a Fleming Fund healthcare partnership to develop antimicrobial stewardship. Initial intelligence gathering suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) is suboptimal. To inform a quality improvement programme we have reviewed the evidence for use of surgical prophylaxis in LMICs including staff behaviours and attitudes.

Methods
MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, CINHAL and Google Scholar were searched from inception to 22 July 2019 for trials, audits, guidelines and systematic review in English. Grey literature, websites and reference lists of included studies were searched. The following data were extracted; study characteristics, interventions, outcomes and recommendations. In view of heterogeneity between studies descriptive analysis was conducted.

Results
Of 185 records screened, 26 studies related to SSI and timing of antibiotic prophylaxis in LMICs were included. The incidence of SSI is significantly higher in LMICs compared with high income countries, recording of infection surveillance data is poor and a lack of local guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis. Several projects in Africa have reported reduction in SSI with single dose preoperative antibiotic use compared with post-operative prophylaxis and a reduction in cost and nurse time. Despite evidence to the contrary, many surgeons continue to use post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis.

Conclusion
Education to improve incidence of SSI in LMICs through appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis can be successful. Interventions must include local context and address strongly held beliefs. The establishment of local multidisciplinary teams will promote ownership and sustainability of change.

Care Bundle Approach to Reduce Surgical Site Infections in Acute Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Cairo, Egypt

Introduction
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most frequently reported hospital acquired infections associated with significant spread of antibiotic resistance.

Purpose
We aimed to evaluate a bundle-based approach in reducing SSI at acute surgical intensive care unit of the Emergency Hospital of Cairo University.

Patients and Methods
Our prospective study ran from March 2018 to February 2019 and used risk assessment. The study was divided into three phases. Phase I: (pre-bundle phase) for 5 months; data collection, active surveillance of the SSIs, screening for OXA-48 producing Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii colonizers using Chrom agars were carried out. Phase II: (bundle-implementation) a 6-S bundle approach included education, training and postoperative bathing with Chlorhexidine Gluconate in collaboration with the infection control team. Finally, Phase III: (post-implementation) for estimation of compliance, rates of colonization, and infection.

Results
Phase I encompassed 177 patients, while Phase III included 93 patients. A significant reduction of colonization from 24% to 15% (p<0.001) was observed. Similarly, a decrease of SSI from 27% to 15% (p=0.02) was noticed. A logistic regression was performed to adjust for confounding in the implementation of the bundle and we found a 70% reduction of SSI odd’s ratio (OR’s ratio = 0.3) confidence interval (95% CI 0.14–0.6) with significant Apache II (p=0.04), type of wound; type II (p=0.002), type III (p=0.001) and duration of surgery (p=0.04) as independent risk factors for SSI. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most prevalent organism during phase I (34.7%). On the other hand, A. baumannii was the commonest organism to be isolated during phase III with (38.5%) preceding K. pneumoniae (30%).

Conclusion
Our study demonstrated that the implementation of a multidisciplinary bundle containing evidence-based interventions was associated with a significant reduction of colonization and SSIs and was met with staff approval and acceptable compliance.

Risk factors of orthopedic surgical site infection in Jordan: A prospective cohort study

Background
Orthopedic surgical site infection represents a hospital acquired infection among orthopedic surgery patients, which in turn delays normal recovery process and increases hospital length of stay and health care costs. As a result, risk factors for orthopedic surgical site infection should be identified thereby allowing the application of protective interventions that may inhibit the occurrence of such infection.

Objectives
To determine risk factors of surgical site infection in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in Jordan.

Materials and methods
The study employed prospective, multi-center approach to collect data about orthopedic surgery patients through assessing their health status and reviewing their medical records and monitoring for occurrence of surgical site infection within 90 days after operation.

Results
286 patients met the eligibility criteria from 18 hospitals. Only surgical wound classification and length of postoperative stay wound were found to be significant risk factors for orthopedic surgical site infection.

Conclusion
Surgical wound classification and length of postoperative stay were identified as risk factors for orthopedic surgical site infection. Risk factors that did not predict occurrence of orthopedic surgical site infection can be identified by other research strategies than the one used in this study, which could be conducted retrospectively or by conducting prospective studies that are both community-based and hospital-based with larger sample sizes

Surgical Site Infections Rates in More Than 13,000 Surgical Procedures in Three Cities in Peru: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a threat to patient safety. However, there are not available data on SSI rates stratified by surgical procedure (SP) in Peru.

METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2010, a cohort prospective surveillance study on SSIs was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in four hospitals in three cities of Peru. Data were recorded from hospitalized patients using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) methods and definitions for SSI. Surgical procedures (SPs) were classified into 4 types, according to ICD-9 criteria.

RESULTS: We recorded 352 SSIs, associated to 13,904 SPs (2.5%; CI, 2.3-2.8) SSI rates per type of SP were the following for this study’s Peruvian hospitals, compared with rates of the INICC and CDC-NHSN reports, respectively: 2.9% for appendix surgery (vs. 2.9% vs. 1.4%); 2.8% for gallbladder surgery (vs. 2.5% vs. 0.6%); 2.2% for cesarean section (vs. 0.7% vs. 1.8%); 2.8% for vaginal hysterectomy (vs. 2.0% vs. 0.9%).

CONCLUSIONS: Our SSIs rates were higher in all of the four analyzed types of SPs compared with CDC-NHSN, whereas compared with INICC, most rates were similar. This study represents an important advance in the knowledge of SSI epidemiology in Peru that will allow us to introduce targeted interventions.