Gender-role behaviour and gender identity in girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Introduction
Girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to excess fetal adrenal androgens in-utero, and often born with masculinised genitalia. They are conventionally reared as females, but show more “boyish” gender-role behaviour (GRB) and gender-identity (GI) issues in childhood and adolescence. Male-rearing is also reported mainly due to delayed treatment and/or socio-cultural factors. We compared GRB/GI in girls with CAH with healthy age matched children, and explored for associations with socio-demographic and diagnosis/treatment related factors.

Methods
GRB and GI were assessed using the Gender Identity Questionnaire for children (GIQC) in 27 girls with classical CAH at a specialised clinic, and compared with 50 age-matched healthy controls, with exploratory-analysis based on socio-demographic and diagnosis/treatment-related factors.

Results
Girls with CAH had lower total GIQC scores compared to healthy children (3.29 vs. 4.04, p = < 0.001) with lower GRB score (3.39 vs. 4.23, p < 0.001), and tendency for lower GI score (3.19 vs. 3.5, p = 0.08). Exploratory analysis showed no differences based on diagnosis/treatment factors including age, degree of virilisation at diagnosis and surgical procedures. and only subtle changes based on ethnicity and maternal education.

Discussion/conclusion
Girls with CAH managed at a specialised centre showed more masculinised GRB and tendency for ambiguous GI, which did not vary upon diagnosis/treatment related factors, suggesting that prenatal androgen exposure was the likely contributor. Clinicians should be vigilant about the increased risk of gender-related problems in girls with CAH, irrespective of sociocultural background and despite early treatment.

Emergency chest wall reconstruction in open pneumo-thorax from gunshot chest: A case report

Chest trauma, penetrating or blunt is common in this era of motor vehicle accidents, violence and terrorism in South Asia. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan but there is no dedicated chest surgery unit in any government sector hospitals. Gunshot chest, is therefore managed by general surgery team in our tertiary care setting i.e. Federal Government Polyclinic Hospital and Post Graduate Medical Institute, Islamabad. We report a case of gunshot chest with lung contusion and open pneumothorax with a chest wall defect of 10 x 15 cm. in March 2015, this young man presented in emergency department of Federal Government Polyclinic Hospital (FGPC), Post Graduate Medical Institute (PGMI) Islamabad in shock after self-inflicted point blank suicidal gunshot to his left anterolateral chest. After primary resuscitation, the patient was shifted to OR, and a left anterolateral thoracotomy performed. Lung contusion was repaired and chest drain placed. The challenging task of closing the huge chest wall defect was performed by rotating the left latissimus dorsi muscle flap. The patient was shifted to ICU and remained stable postoperatively.