Slipped capital femoral epiphysis in Ramathibodi Hospital.

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis is rare in Asiatic Indonesian-Malays. Seven cases (9 hips) of this condition in Ramathibodi Hospital including five boys (average age, 12.5 years) and two girls (average age, 13 years) were reviewed. Most of the cases (4 out of 7) were acute on chronic and mild slips. No endocrine disorder was observed in all cases. All of the patients had a body weight above the mean of the normal population, four of which were obese. For the treatment, a single screw fixation including one case with cancellous and six cases with cannulated type were used. In the follow-up of average 2.5 years, six cases had satisfactory results. Avascular necrosis occurred in one case with mild and chronic slips in which a cancellous screw was used. It is concluded that obesity is the important factor related to the etiology in this study and probably is the same in other developing countries. The effect of a cancellous screw causing avascular necrosis is still questionable.

In-situ pinning for Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis in blacks: experience in a regional orthopaedic centre.

BACKGROUND:
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) is the commonest pathology affecting the adolescent hip with an incidence of approximately 2 per 100,000 population. Blacks are more commonly affected than Caucasians. Of many treatment options available, in-situ-pinning appears to be the most widely employed.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
To determine the epidemiological pattern and the outcome of in-situ pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis in Nigerian adolescents.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:
This is a six-year retrospective review of all the cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis treated by in-situ pinning between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2003 at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, Lagos, Nigeria.

RESULTS:
Thirty-one patients with 35 affected hips were managed with in-situ pinning during the period of review. Twenty-one females (67.7%) and 10 males (32.3%) with a F:M ratio of 2.1:1 were affected. The mean age for all the patients was 12.45 years (range 6 – 16; SD ± 1.79). The most common presenting complaint was hip pain seen in 48.4% of cases. Satisfactory results were obtained in 13 hips (37%) while the results in the remaining 22 hips were unsatisfactory. The most common complication was limb length discrepancy.

CONCLUSION:
This study shows that SCFE is not an uncommon condition in orthopaedic practice in Nigeria. The high rate of unsatisfactory results is associated with the severity of the slips and the unavailability of image intensifier at the time of surgery.

Bone disease in African children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis: histomorphometry of iliac crest biopsies.

African teenagers with slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) not infrequently also have genu valgum (knock-knee). Because we had previously demonstrated metabolic bone disease attributable to dietary calcium deficiency in black teenagers with genu valgum, we examined 29 black teenagers (15 male, 14 female) with SCFE for metabolic bone disease. Each patient had an iliac crest bone biopsy taken (after double tetracycline labeling) for routine histomorphometry, and blood and urine samples for bone biochemistry. Spinal bone mineral density was measured in 13 patients. Compared to reported data, we found our patients to be sexually more immature, older, at least as obese, and to have more severe and more frequently bilateral hip disease. Eighty percent of the children took dairy products only once or twice a week or less frequently, and 37.9% had genu valgum. Compared with race- and age-matched South Africans, bone biopsies in our patients showed lower bone volume (BV/TV, p = 0.0003), wall thickness (p = 0.0002), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, p = 0.0002), and a tendency to greater trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp, p = 0.053). Lower osteoid volume (OV/BV, p = 0.0001), osteoid surface (OS/BS, p = 0.0001), osteoid thickness (O.Th, p = 0.0002), double labeled surface (dLS/BS, p = 0.029), and bone formation rate (BFR/BS, p = 0.037) suggested poorer bone forming capacity in our patients. No evidence of hyperparathyroid bone disease or osteomalacia was found. BV/TV was below the reference range (14.2%) in 65.5% of cases; these patients had lower values for Tb.Th (p = 0.037) and Tb.N (p = 0.0003), greater Tb.Sp (p = 0.0002), a tendency to lower adjusted apposition rate (Aj.AR, p = 0.057), and had had less frequent intake of dairy products than those with normal BV/TV (p = 0.024). Furthermore, months since menarche correlated with histomorphometric variables BV/TV (r = 0.667, p = 0.009), Tb.Th (r = 0.745, p = 0.002), Tb.Sp (r = -0.549, p = 0.042), O.Th (r = 0.784, p = 0.0009), and Aj.AR (r = 0.549, p = 0.042). The correlation between Tb.Th and spinal bone mineral content (r = 0.656, p = 0.015) suggests that the reduced trabecular thickness reflected a generalized bone condition. A greater than normal proportion of patients had spinal bone mineral density values below -1 standard deviation (SD) of the mean (osteopenia) (p = 0.001). Patients tested for parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were found to have normal values. Parathyroid hormone correlated with Aj.AR (r = 0.661, p = 0.038) and serum phosphorus (r = -0.764, p = 0.010). We conclude that sexual immaturity and possibly past dietary calcium deficiency contributed to osteopenia, and that this, together with obesity, led to the development of more severe and more frequently bilateral SCFE in our patients than in reported series of black and white children.