Pediatric renal tumors account for 3%–11% of childhood cancers, the most common of which is Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma. Epidemiology plays a key role in cancer prevention and control by describing the distribution of cancer and discovering risk factors for cancer. Large pediatric research consortium trials have led to a clearer understanding of pediatric renal tumors, identification of risk factors, and development of more risk-adapted therapies. These therapies have improved event-free and overall survival for children. However, several challenges remain and not all children have benefited from the improved outcomes. In this article, we review the global epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors, including key consortium and global studies. We identify current knowledge gaps and challenges facing both high and low middle-incomes countries.