Prevalence and Pattern of Congenital Malformations among Neonates in the Neonatal Unit of a Tertiary Care Hospital

Background and Aim: Globally, congenital anomalies (CA) are a major contributing factor for neonate’s admission in NICU causing neonatal morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries. Congenital anomalies generally indicate the morphogenesis defect in an early neonate’s life. The leading cause for perinatal mortality is congenital anomalies that arise with advancement of delivery and care for newborn babies. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of congenital anomalies among neonates admitted to neonatal unit.

Methodology: This retrospective study was carried out on 1620 neonates (newborns to age 28 days) admitted to the neonatal unit of Services Hospital, Lahore from April 2020 to March 2022. The incidence, risk factors, and pattern of congenital anomalies were measured. Detailed examinations such as radiological, laboratory, ultrasonography, and echocardiography were recorded. Different outcomes such as hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality were determined with 95% confidence intervals. SPSS version 25 was used for data analysis.

Results: Of the total 1620 admitted neonates, the prevalence of neonates with congenital anomalies were 112 (6.9%). Out of 112 neonates diagnosed with congenital anomalies, 64 (57.1%) were male and 48 (42.9%) were females. The incidence of cesarean and other modes of delivery were 74 (66%) and 38 (34%) respectively. Cardiovascular system malformation was the most prevalent affected system in 36 (31.9%) neonates followed by central nerve system 28 (25%), genitourinary system 19 (17%), musculoskeletal system 16 (14.3%), gastrointestinal tract 6 (5.4%), digestive system 4 (3.6%), and syndromes and skin 3 (2.7%). Congenital anomalies were significantly increasing over time. The incidence of discharged, referred to higher centers for intervention, and expired babies were 77 (68.8%), 19 (16.7%), and 16 (14.3%) respectively.

Conclusion: The present study found that the prevalence of congenital anomalies was 6.9%. Cardiovascular system malformation was the most prevalent congenital anomaly followed by the central nerve system. The overall mortality rate was 14.3% caused by congenital anomalies. A better health care strategies and management must be developed in terms of early detection, supplementation facilitation, decreasing drug usage, and better antenatal care to prevent the impacts of congenital anomalies on neonates.

Patterns of injuries among Children visiting Gondar town public health institutes, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019

Background: Injuries have been recognized as the leading cause of death in children for nearly 40 years. However, most epidemiological studies of injuries have not been community-based and are limited either to a single type of injury, such as head injuries or burnsor to a specific cause of injury, such as consumer products.

Objective: To determine patterns of injuries among children visiting Gondar town public health institutes, Northwest Ethiopia,2019.

Methods: An institutional-based prospective cross-sectional study was conductedamong children visiting Gondar town public health institutes of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia from June 25 to September 25, 2019. A total of 385 participants were included in the study. Data were entered into Epi-info version 7.2.1 and exported to SPSS version 21.0 for analysis and descriptive statistics were presented in text, tables, charts, and graphs.

Result: The majority of the pediatric trauma cases were seen in males 61.8%, (n = 238) and females comprised only 38.2% (n = 147). Stone or stick injury (29.1%) was the most common mode of trauma followed by road traffic injuries (21.0%), falls (19.0%), and burns (14.0%). The majority of injuries happened during playing (53%) and around the home (37.9%). In this study the three top most frequent sites of injuries were: lower extremity injury 167 (43.4%), upper extremity127 (33.0%), and head injury 50 (13.0%).

Conclusion and recommendation: The high rate of pediatric trauma from sticks or stones, roadways, and falls highlights the need for increased supervision and identification of specific dangers when playing. In our scenario, a comprehensive trauma registry appears to be critical for developing policies to lessen the burden of pediatric trauma. Further research with large sample size and associated factors for pediatric injuries is recommended.