SURGE: Survey of Undergraduate Respondents on Global surgery Education

Introduction
It is estimated that over 10% of the global burden of disease can be treated with surgery, most of which is located in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), underpinning the importance of the topic of global surgery (GS). The multidisciplinary principles of GS are increasingly recognised as being key to modern practice and as such, must be fostered at early stages of medical training. However, it is unclear whether medical students are being exposed to GS. This study aimed to assess the importance of GS and its presence in medical curricula.

Methods
A novel, 22-item online questionnaire was developed and disseminated to medical students and faculty members using social media. Data collection was conducted by a collaboration of medical students, who acted as regional leads at their institutions.

Results
795 medical students and 141 faculty members representing 38/42 of UK medical schools (90.4%) completed the questionnaire. Only 84 students (10.6%) were previously exposed to GS. Most students (66.3%) and faculty (60.6%) agreed that GS should be an integral part of the curriculum. Only 20 students (2.5%) were or familiar with what a career in GS means.

Conclusion
Approximately 2/3 of students and faculty agree that global surgery should be an integral part of the mandatory curriculum. Findings of this study should underpin further incorporation of GS into curricula, as high-income countries can decisively contribute to achieving the global surgery 2030 targets, by training a new generation of clinicians who are ready for the challenges of the 21st century.

Did COVID-19 Pandemic change Anaesthesia Practices in India: A Multi-centre Cross-sectional Study

Introduction
The anaesthetic management for surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique challenges. Safety of all healthcare workers is an additional concern along with heightened risk to patients during General Anesthesia (GA). COVID-19 pneumonia and aerosol generation may be exacerbated during airway intervention and GA. We aimed to assess the change in the mode of anaesthesia due to the pandemic.

Methods
A research consortium led by WHO Collaboration Centre for Research in Surgical Care Delivery in Low and Middle Income countries, India, conducted this retrospective cross-sectional study in 12 hospitals across the country. We compared the anaesthesia preferences during pandemic (April 2020) to a corresponding pre pandemic period (April 2019)

Results
A total of 636 out of 2,162 (29.4%) and 156 out of 927 (16.8%) surgeries were performed under GA in April 2019 and April 2020 respectively, leading to a fall of 13% in usage of GA. A 5% reduction in GA and a 12% increase in the usage of regional anaesthesia was observed for cesarean sections. There was no significant change in anesthesia for laparotomies and fracture surgeries. However, 14% increase in GA usage was observed in surgeries for local soft tissue infections and necrotic tissues.

Conclusion
Though overall usage of GA reduced marginally, the change was mainly contributed by anesthesia for caesarean births. The insignificant change in anaesthesia for other surgeries may be attributed to the lack of facilities for spinal anaesthesia and may reflect the risk taking behaviour of healthcare professionals in COVID-19 pandemic.