An epidemiological study of traumatic brain injury cases in a trauma centre of New Delhi (India)

Background: Trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability in Indian population. Aim: To correlate various variables like epidemiology, clinical status, severity of TBI & associated co-morbid conditions and its outcome.
Settings and Design: This study involved retrospective collection, prospective management and follow up of 796 cases of TBI admitted to the neurosurgery department of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi during one year study duration.
Materials and Methods: All the relevant variables recorded and analyzed with Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in 6 months into 3 groups i.e. group 1 (GOS-1/Dead), group 2 (GOS-2&3/Bad) and group 3- (GOS-3&4/good). Statistical Analysis: Compiled data collected, analyzed and difference between two proportions was analyzed using Chi Square test.
Results: This study included 791 cases with 569 (72%) males and 222 (28%) females with average age of 24 years. Fall from height was the main cause of TBI (56%) followed by road traffic injury (RTI) (36%). Majority (61%) patients reached the hospital within 6 hours of injury out of which 27% patients were unconscious. As per Glasgow coma scale mild, moderate & severe grade of TBI was seen in 62%, 22% &16% cases respectively. Radiological examination of other body parts revealed injuries in 11% cases. Only 11% cases required surgical management, rest was managed conservatively. Good outcome noted in 80% cases and 20% cases expired. Average duration of hospital stay was 5 days. According to multivariate analysis, the factors which correlated with poor prognosis are presence of radiological injuries to other body parts, GCS, abnormal cranial nerve examination, abnormal plantar and abnormal pupillary reflex. (P < 0.05)
Conclusion: TBI predominantly affects young male population and most of these are preventable. Early transportation to the hospital and first aid results in good outcome. Mortality increases with the severity of TBI and associated injuries therefore multimodality approach in polytrauma is essential.