Leadership development for orthopaedic trauma surgeons in Latin America: opportunities for and barriers to skill acquisition

Introduction:
There is growing interest in leadership courses for physicians. Few opportunities are available in global regions with limited resources. This study describes orthopaedic trauma surgeons’ desired leadership skill acquisition, opportunities, and barriers to course participation in Latin America.

Methods:
Latin American orthopaedic trauma surgeons from the Asociación de Cirujanos Traumatólogos de las Americas (ACTUAR) network were surveyed. This survey solicited and gauged the surgeons’ level of interest in leadership topics and their relative importance utilizing a 5-point Likert-scale. Additionally, comparisons were calculated between middle-income countries (MICs) and high-income countries (HICs) to ascertain if needs were different between groups. The survey included demographic information, nationality, level of training, years in practice, leadership position, needs assessment, and perceived barriers for leadership educational opportunities.

Results:
One hundred forty-four orthopaedic surgeons completed the survey, representing 18 countries across Latin America; 15 MICs and 3 HICs. Participants had more than 20 years in practice (49%) and held leadership positions (81%) in hospital settings (62%), national orthopaedic societies (45%), and/or clinical settings (40%). Sixty-three percent had never attended a leadership course due to lack of opportunities/invitations (69%), difficulty missing work (24%), and costs (21%). Ninety-seven percent expressed interest in attending a leadership course. No difference in needs was determined between respondents from MICs and HICs. Professional Ethics, Crisis Management/Organizational Change Management, and High Performing Team-Building were identified as the most important leadership topics.

Conclusion:
Orthopaedic surgeons in Latin America demonstrate an interest in acquiring additional leadership skills but have few opportunities. Identifying interests, knowledge gaps, and core competencies can guide the development of such opportunities.

Recommendations for streamlining precision medicine in breast cancer care in Latin America.

Background
The incidence of breast cancer (BC) in LMICs has increased by more than 20% within the last decade. In areas such as Latin America (LA), addressing BC at national levels evoke discussions surrounding fragmented care, limited resources, and regulatory barriers. Precision Medicine (PM), specifically companion diagnostics (CDx), links disease diagnosis and treatment for better patient outcomes. Thus, its application may aid in overcoming these barriers.
Recent findings
A panel of LA experts in fields related to BC and PM were provided with a series of relevant questions to address prior to a multi-day conference. Within this conference, each narrative was edited by the entire group, through numerous rounds of discussion until a consensus was achieved. The panel proposes specific, realistic recommendations for implementing CDx in BC in LA and other LMIC regions. In these recommendations, the authors strived to address all barriers to the widespread use and access mentioned previously within this manuscript.
Conclusion
This manuscript provides a review of the current state of CDx for BC in LA. Of most importance, the panel proposes practical and actionable recommendations for the implementation of CDx throughout the Region in order to identify the right patient at the right time for the right treatment.

Global Neurosurgery Activities in the Latin American Region

Latin America comprises 33 countries and 15 dependencies of other countries, having a population of over 630 million inhabitants (Tables 1 and 2). As one of the most urbanized regions worldwide and with many diverse cities, there is a large variability in life expectancy and mortality profiles. A recent study on the life expectancy and mortality in 363 Latin American towns published in Nature found that Life expectancy at birth ranges from 74–83 years and 63–77 years in women and men. Regarding mortality profiles, they found proportionate mortality by violent injury from near 0%, similar to Italy, to almost 20%, identical to Iraq

A Consensus Statement for Trauma Surgery Capacity Building in Latin America

Background: Trauma is a significant public health problem in Latin America (L.A.), contributing to substantial death and disability in the region. Several LA countries have implemented trauma registries and injury surveillance systems. However, the region lacks an integrated trauma system. The consensus conference’s goal was to integrate existing L.A. trauma data collection efforts into a regional trauma program and encourage the use of the data to inform health policy.

Methods: We created a consensus group of 25 experts in trauma and emergency care with previous data collection and injury surveillance experience in the L.A. region. Experts participated in a consensus conference to discuss the state of trauma data collection in L.A. We utilized the Delphi method to build consensus around strategic steps for trauma data management in the region. Consensus was defined as the agreement of ≥ 70% among the expert panel.

Results: The consensus conference determined that action was necessary from academic bodies, scientific societies, and ministries of health to encourage a culture of collection and use of health data in trauma. The panel developed a set of recommendations for these groups to encourage the development and use of robust trauma information systems in L.A. Consensus was achieved in one Delphi round.

Conclusions: The expert group successfully reached a consensus on recommendations to key stakeholders in trauma information systems in L.A. These recommendations may be used to encourage capacity-building in trauma research and trauma health policy in the region

The Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Traffic Accidents in Latin America: A Narrative Review

Objective Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are devastating injuries and represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traffic accidents are one of the main causes, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The epidemiology of TBI due to road traffic in Latin America is not clearly documented.

Methods A narrative review was conducted using PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar, looking for TBI studies in Latin America published between 2000 and 2018. Seventeen studies were found that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results  It was found that TBI due to road traffic accidents (RTAs) is more frequent in males between the ages of 15 and 35 years, and patients in motor vehicles accounted for most cases, followed by pedestrians, motorcyclists, and cyclists.

Conclusion Road traffic accidents is a common cause of TBI in Latin America. More studies and registries are needed to properly document the epidemiological profiles of TBI related to RTAs.