Frequency of Vertebral Fractures in Patients presenting with Hip Fractures

Objective:To determine the frequency of vertebral fractures in patients presenting with hip fractures. Methods:This prospective study was conducted at The Indus Hospital, Karachi, from May 2018 to November 2018. All patients above 40 years presenting with hip fractures were enrolled and a dorsal lumbar lateral view radiograph was obtained to investigate for vertebral fractures. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. Post-stratification, Chi-square/Fisher exact test was applied as appropriate to assess the significant association. P value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results:Three hundred thirty five patients were enrolled. Of these, 189 (56.4%) were females and 165 (49.3%) presented with neck of femur fractures. Out of 335 hip fractures patients, 77 (23%) were found to have concomitant vertebral fractures, with 73 (96.1%) having a compression fracture. T12 was the most common vertebra involved and 68.8% of patients were asymptomatic. Co-morbid conditions were statistically significantly associated with vertebral fractures. Conclusion:There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral fractures in our population, but low compared to studies from western countries. There is a need to evaluate these fractures separately for the prevention of morbidity and mortality.

The Coming Hip and Femur Fracture Bundle: A New Inpatient Risk Stratification Tool for Care Providers.

INTRODUCTION:
In response to increasing health-care costs, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services has initiated several programs to transition from a fee-for-service model to a value-based care model. One such voluntary program is Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Advanced (BPCI Advanced) which includes all hip and femur fractures that undergo operative fixation. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current cost and resource utilization of operatively fixed (nonarthroplasty) hip and femur fracture procedure bundle patients at a single level 1 trauma center within the framework of a risk stratification tool (Score for Trauma Triage in the Geriatric and Middle-Aged [STTGMA]) to identify areas of high utilization before our hospitals transition to bundle period.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A cohort of Medicare-eligible patients discharged with the Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) codes 480 to 482 (hip and femur fractures requiring surgical fixation) from a level 1 trauma center between October 2014 and September 2016 was evaluated and assigned a trauma triage risk score (STTGMA score). Patients were stratified into groups based on these scores to create a minimal-, low-, moderate-, and high-risk cohort. Length of stay (LOS), discharge location, need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/Step Down Unit (SDU) care, inpatient complications, readmission within 90 days, and inpatient admission costs were recorded.

RESULTS:
One hundred seventy-three patients with a mean age of 81.5 (10.1) years met inclusion criteria. The mean LOS was 8.0 (4.2) days, with high-risk patients having 4 days greater LOS than lower risk patients. The mean number of total complications was 0.9 (0.8) with a significant difference between risk groups (P = .029). The mean total cost of admission for the entire cohort of patients was US$25,446 (US$9725), with a nearly US$9000 greater cost for high-risk patients compared to the low-risk patients. High-cost areas of care included room/board, procedure, and radiology.

DISCUSSION:
High-risk patients were more likely to have longer and more costly admissions with average index admission costs nearly US$9000 more than the lower risk patient cohorts. These high-risk patients were also more likely to develop inpatient complications and require higher levels of care.

CONCLUSION:
This analysis of a 2-year cohort of patients who would qualify for the BPCI Advanced hip and femur procedure bundle demonstrates that the STTGMA tool can be used to identify high-risk patients who fall outside the bundle.