Efficacy of Corrective Surgery for Gait and Energy Expenditure in Patients with Scoliosis: A Literature Review

The aim of this literature review was to evaluate selected original papers that measured gait parameters and energy expenditure in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) treated with surgical intervention. IS is a progressive growth disease that affects spinal anatomy, mobility, and left–right trunk symmetry. Consequently, IS can modify human gait. Spinal fusions remain the primary approach to correcting scoliosis deformities, thereby halting progression. Using the population intervention comparison outcome measure framework and selected keywords, 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Alteration of spatial and temporal variables in patients with IS was contradictory among the selected studies. Ankle and foot kinematics did not change after surgery; however, pelvic and hip frontal motions increased and pelvic rotation decreased following surgery. Patients with IS continued to show excessive energy expenditure following surgery in the absence of a physical rehabilitation protocol. Spinal surgery may be considered for gait improvement and IS treatment. There were inadequate data regarding the effect of corrective surgery on the kinetics, energy expenditure, and muscle activity parameters.