Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Acetabular Fractures Treated Operatively without a C-Arm in Ethiopia

Background:
There is little evidence describing the open treatment of displaced acetabular fractures in low-resource environments. We endeavored to determine the results of the operative management of acetabular fractures without intraoperative C-arm use in a developing nation, through the assessment of patient-reported outcome measures.

Methods:
This was a prospective, single-surgeon, consecutive case series conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Ethiopia, a high-population, low-income country. The primary author performed fixation without the use of a C-arm in 108 patients from among a total of 202 patients presenting with acetabular fracture. The modified Harris hip score (mHHS) and Short-Form Health Survey (SF)-36 at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively were used to assess the outcome.

Results:
Of the 108 patients potentially available for analysis, 92 (85%) were available for 2-year follow-up (mean age of 35 years; range, 15 to 70 years). The mean duration from injury to surgery was 16 days (range, 1 to 204 days). Seventy-three (78.5%; n = 93) of the patients had associated fracture patterns. The most common fractures were associated both-column type (22%) and transverse-plus-posterior-wall type (22%). The mean mHHS was 91; 88% of the patients had a score of ≥80, and 12% had a score of ≤79. SF-36 scores were in alignment with the mHHS. The majority (approximately 90%) of our cohort returned to work. We did not find a significant difference in the mean mHHS between patients with or without anatomic reduction (p = 0.31). However, 2-year radiographic outcomes were strongly associated with the mean mHHS (p < 0.001). Predictors of a lower mHHS included older age, cartilage damage, and lack of secondary congruence. Conclusions: Good functional outcomes were achieved at 2 years among patients with acetabular fractures surgically treated without the use of a C-arm in a limited-resource setting. Surgical congruence of the femoral head under the acetabular roof, rather than the absolute residual gap, seems essential in determining clinical outcomes. This information can help in planning increased access to care for individuals who experience traumatic injuries in low- and middle-income countries.

Implementing surgical mentorship in a resource-constrained context: a mixed methods assessment of the experiences of mentees, mentors, and leaders, and lessons learned

Background
A well-qualified workforce is critical to effective functioning of health systems and populations; however, skill gaps present a challenge in low-resource settings. While an emerging body of evidence suggests that mentorship can improve quality, access, and systems in African health settings by building the capacity of health providers, less is known about its implementation in surgery. We studied a novel surgical mentorship intervention as part of a safe surgery intervention (Safe Surgery 2020) in five rural Ethiopian facilities to understand factors affecting implementation of surgical mentorship in resource–constrained settings.

Methods
We designed a convergent mixed-methods study to understand the experiences of mentees, mentors, hospital leaders, and external stakeholders with the mentorship intervention. Quantitative data was collected through a survey (n = 25) and qualitative data through in-depth interviews (n = 26) in 2018 to gather information on (1) intervention characteristics including areas of mentorship, mentee-mentor relationships, and mentor characteristics, (2) organizational context including facilitators and barriers to implementation, (3) perceived impact, and (4) respondent characteristics. We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative data using frequency analysis and the constant comparison method, respectively; we integrated findings to identify themes.

Results
All mentees (100%) experienced the intervention as positive. Participants perceived impact as: safer and more frequent surgical procedures, collegial bonds between mentees and mentors, empowerment among mentees, and a culture of continuous learning. Over 70% of all mentees reported their confidence and job satisfaction increased. Supportive intervention characteristics included a systems focus, psychologically safe mentee-mentor relationships, and mentor characteristics including generosity with time and knowledge, understanding of local context, and interpersonal skills. Supportive organizational context included a receptive implementation climate. Intervention challenges included insufficient clinical training, inadequate mentor support, and inadequate dose. Organizational context challenges included resource constraints and a lack of common understanding of the intervention.

Conclusion
We offer lessons for intervention designers, policy makers, and practitioners about optimizing surgical mentorship interventions in resource-constrained settings. We attribute the intervention’s success to its holistic approach, a receptive climate, and effective mentee-mentor relationships. These qualities, along with policy support and adapting the intervention through user feedback are important for successful implementation.

Virtual reality technology in linked orthopaedic training in Ethiopia

Introduction
We describe the feasibility of delivering a live orthopaedic surgical teaching session with virtual reality (VR) technology simultaneously for trainee surgeons in Ethiopia and the UK.

Methods
Forty-three delegates from the Severn Deanery in the UK (n=30) and Bahir Dar in Ethiopia (n=13) attended a live training session in February 2021. During the session, participants watched a surgical operation (recorded earlier that week with a 360° VR camera) alongside live commentary. A qualitative questionnaire was distributed to gauge feasibility, connectivity and educational value of the session as well as its VR component.

Results
The majority of delegates from both the UK and Ethiopia felt that the use of VR technology to aid surgical training is feasible, that it is useful for learning surgical approaches, that it aids surgical performance and that it is superior to conventional resources. Bahir Dar residents strongly agreed that VR simulation videos would allow trainees to supplement reduced learning opportunities as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and help to counteract their reduced operating experience. For Bahir Dar trainees, a lack of a stable internet connection for large VR files was the predominant issue.

Conclusions
This study demonstrates that there are infrastructure challenges in low and middle income countries (LMICs) in terms of the reliable delivery of VR teaching in orthopaedics at the current time. Despite this, our findings better inform the potential role of VR technology in surgical education, and shed light on the possibility for it to feed into and enrich surgical training in both LMICs and high income countries.

The magnitude and perceived reasons for childhood cancer treatment abandonment in Ethiopia: from health care providers’ perspective

Background
Treatment abandonment is one of major reasons for childhood cancer treatment failure and low survival rate in low- and middle-income countries. Ethiopia plans to reduce abandonment rate by 60% (2019–2023), but baseline data and information about the contextual risk factors that influence treatment abandonment are scarce.

Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 5 to 22, 2021, on the three major pediatric oncology centers in Ethiopia. Data on the incidence and reasons for treatment abandonment were obtained from healthcare professionals. We were unable to obtain data about the patients’ or guardians’ perspective because the information available in the cancer registry was incomplete to contact adequate number of respondents. We used a validated, semi-structured questionnaire developed by the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Abandonment Technical Working Group. We included all (N = 38) health care professionals (physicians, nurses, and social workers) working at these centers who had more than one year of experience in childhood cancer service provision (a universal sampling and 100% response rate).

Results
The perceived mean abandonment rate in Ethiopia is 34% (SE 2.5%). The risk of treatment abandonment is dependent on the type of cancer (high for bone sarcoma and brain tumor), the phase of treatment and treatment outcome. The highest risk is during maintenance and treatment failure or relapse for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and during pre- or post-surgical phase for Wilms tumor and bone sarcoma. The major influencing risk factors in Ethiopia includes high cost of care, low economic status, long travel time to treatment centers, long waiting time, belief in the incurability of cancer and poor public awareness about childhood cancer.

Conclusions
The perceived abandonment rate in Ethiopia is high, and the risk of abandonment varies according to the type of cancer, phase of treatment or treatment outcome. Therefore, mitigation strategies to reduce the abandonment rate should include identifying specific risk factors and prioritizing strategies based on their level of influence, effectiveness, feasibility, and affordability.

Patterns of injuries among Children visiting Gondar town public health institutes, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019

Background: Injuries have been recognized as the leading cause of death in children for nearly 40 years. However, most epidemiological studies of injuries have not been community-based and are limited either to a single type of injury, such as head injuries or burnsor to a specific cause of injury, such as consumer products.

Objective: To determine patterns of injuries among children visiting Gondar town public health institutes, Northwest Ethiopia,2019.

Methods: An institutional-based prospective cross-sectional study was conductedamong children visiting Gondar town public health institutes of Amhara region, Northwest Ethiopia from June 25 to September 25, 2019. A total of 385 participants were included in the study. Data were entered into Epi-info version 7.2.1 and exported to SPSS version 21.0 for analysis and descriptive statistics were presented in text, tables, charts, and graphs.

Result: The majority of the pediatric trauma cases were seen in males 61.8%, (n = 238) and females comprised only 38.2% (n = 147). Stone or stick injury (29.1%) was the most common mode of trauma followed by road traffic injuries (21.0%), falls (19.0%), and burns (14.0%). The majority of injuries happened during playing (53%) and around the home (37.9%). In this study the three top most frequent sites of injuries were: lower extremity injury 167 (43.4%), upper extremity127 (33.0%), and head injury 50 (13.0%).

Conclusion and recommendation: The high rate of pediatric trauma from sticks or stones, roadways, and falls highlights the need for increased supervision and identification of specific dangers when playing. In our scenario, a comprehensive trauma registry appears to be critical for developing policies to lessen the burden of pediatric trauma. Further research with large sample size and associated factors for pediatric injuries is recommended.

Compliance with the World Health Organization’s surgical safety checklist and related postoperative outcomes: a nationwide survey among 172 health facilities in Ethiopia

Background
Ministry of Health (MOH) of Ethiopia adopted World Health Organization’s evidence-proven surgical safety checklist (SSC) to reduce the occurrence of surgical complications, i.e., death, disability and prolong hospitalization. MOH commissioned this evaluation to learn about SSC completeness and compliance, and its effect on magnitude of surgical complications.

Methods
Health institution-based cross-sectional study with retrospective surgical chart audit was used to evaluate SSC utilization in 172 public and private health facilities in Ethiopia, December 2020–May 2021. A total of 1720 major emergency and elective surgeries in 172 (140 public and 32 private) facilities were recruited for chart review by an experienced team of surgical clinicians. A pre-tested tool was used to abstract data from patient charts and national database. Analyzed descriptive, univariable and bivariable data using Stata version-15 statistical software.

Results
In 172 public and private health facilities across Ethiopia, 1603 of 1720 (93.2%) patient charts were audited; representations of public and private facilities were 81.4% (n = 140) and 18.6% (n = 32), respectively. Of surgeries that utilized SSC (67.6%, 1083 of 1603), the proportion of SSC that were filled completely and correctly were 60.8% (659 of 1083). Surgeries compliant to SSC guide achieved a statistically significant reduction in perioperative mortality (P = 0.002) and anesthesia adverse events (P = 0.005), but not in Surgical Site Infection (P = 0.086). Non-compliant surgeries neither utilized SSC nor completed the SSC correctly, 58.9% (944 of 1603).

Conclusions
Surgeries that adhered to the SSC achieved a statistically significant reduction in perioperative complications, including mortality. Disappointingly, a significant number of surgeries (58.9%) failed to adhere to SSC, a missed opportunity for reducing complications.

Phenotypic Bacterial Isolates, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Associated Factors among Septicemia Suspected Patients at a hospital, in Northwest Ethiopia. Prospective cross- sectional study

Background
Septicemia is a life-threatening infection when pathogenic bacteria infiltrate the bloodstream, leading morbidity and mortality in Ethiopian hospital patients. Multidrug resistance is a therapeutic challenge among this patient and has a paucity of data in the hospitals. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and associated factors among septicemia suspected patients.

Methods
Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 214 septicemia suspected patients from February to June 2021 a hospital in northwest, Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected aseptically and processed to identify bacterial isolates by using different standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was performed using the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion on Mueller Hinton agar. Epi-data V4.2 was used to enter data and SPSS V25 for analysis. The variables were assessed using a bivariate logistic regression model with a 95% confidence interval, and declared statistically significant; P-value was < 0.05.

Results
The overall bacterial isolates was found 45/214 (21%) in this study. Gram-negative and positive bacteria were 25/45(55.6%), 20/45(44.4%) respectively. The most common bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus12/45 (26.7%), Klebsiella pneumonia8/45(17.8%), Escherichia coli 6/45 (13.3%). Gram-negative bacteria showed susceptible to amikacin (88%), meropenem, imipenem (76%), but resistance to (92%) ampicillin, (85.7%) amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. S.aureus (91.7%) resistance to Penicillin, (58.3%) cefoxitin and (75%) susceptible to ciprofloxacillin. S.pyogenes and S.agalactia were (100%) susceptible to Vancomacin. Multidrug resistance was found in 27/45(60%) of the bacterial isolates. The main predictors related to patients suspected of septicemia were prolonged hospitalization (AOR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.22), fever (AOR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.18, 0.85) and length of hospital stay (AOR = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.02, 0.82).

Conclusions
Bacterial isolates among septicemia suspected patients were high. The majority of the bacterial isolates were multidrug-resistant. To prevent antimicrobial resistance, specific antibiotic utilization strategy should be applied.

Emergency capacity analysis in Ethiopia: Results of a baseline emergency facility assessment

Introduction
In Ethiopia, the specialty of Emergency Medicine is a relatively new discipline. In the last few decades, policymakers have made Emergency Medicine a priority for improving population health. This study aims to contribute to this strengthening of Emergency Medicine, by conducting the country’s first baseline gap analysis of Emergency Medicine Capacity at the pre-hospital and hospital level in order to help identify needs and areas for intervention.

Methods
This is a cross sectional investigation that utilized a convenience sampling of 22 primary, general and tertiary hospitals. Trained personnel visited the hospitals and conducted 4-hour interviews with hospital administrators and emergency care area personnel. The tool used in the interview was the Columbia University sidHARTe Program Emergency Services Resource Assessment Tool (ESRAT) to evaluate both emergency and trauma capacity in different regions of Ethiopia. The findings of this survey were then compared against two established standards: the World Health Organization’s Essential Package of Emergency Care (EPEC), as well as those set by Ethiopia’s Federal Ministry of Health.

Results
The tool assessed the services provided at each hospital and evaluated the infrastructure of emergency care at the facility. Triage systems differed amongst the hospitals surveyed though triaging and emergency unit infrastructures were relatively similar amongst the hospitals. There was a marked variability in the level of training, guidelines, staffing, disaster preparedness, drug availability, procedures performed, and quality assurance measures from hospital to hospital. Most regional and district hospitals did not have nurses or doctors trained in Emergency Medicine and over 70% of the hospitals did not have written guidelines for standardized emergency care.

Conclusion
This gap analysis has revealed numerous inconsistencies in health care practice, resources, and infrastructure within the scope of Emergency Medicine in Ethiopia. Major gaps were identified, and the results of this assessment were used to devise action priorities for the Ministry of Health. Much remains to be done to strengthen Emergency Medicine in Ethiopia, and numerous opportunities exist to make additional short and long-term improvements

Predictors of facility-based delivery utilization in central Ethiopia: A case-control study

Background
Improving access to maternal health services has been a priority for the health sector in low-income countries; the utilization of facility delivery services has remained low. Although Ethiopia provides free maternal health services in all public health facilities utilization of services has not been as expected.

Objective
This study examined predictors of facility delivery service utilization in central Ethiopia.

Methods
We conducted a community-based case-control study within the catchment areas of selected public health facilities in central Ethiopia. Women who delivered their last child in a health facility were considered as cases and women who delivered their last child at home were considered as controls. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of facility delivery utilization.

Result
Facility delivery was positive and strongly associated with practicing birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) (AOR = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.9, 39.1); partners’ involvement about obstetric assistance (AOR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.0, 9.0); spending 30 or less minutes to decide on the place of delivery and 45 or less minutes to walk to health facilities (AOR = 7.4, 95%CI: 2.4, 23.2 and AOR = 8.1, 95%CI: 2.5, 26.9, respectively). Additionally, having knowledge of obstetric complication, attending ≥ 4 antenatal care (ANC) visits, birth order and the use of free ambulance service also showed significant association with facility delivery.

Conclusion
Despite the availability of free maternal services there are still many barriers to utilization of delivery services. Strengthening efforts to bring delivery services closer to home and enhancing BPCR are necessary to increase institutional delivery service utilization.

Magnitude of mortality and its associated factors among Burn victim children admitted to South Gondar zone government hospitals, Ethiopia, from 2015 to 2019

Background
Burn is one of the leading causes of preventable death and disability every year in low and middle-income countries, which mainly affects those aged less than 15 years. Death from burn injuries carries the most significant losses, which often have grave consequences for the countries. Even though data from different settings are necessary to tackle it, pieces of evidence in this area are limited. Thus, this study was aimed to answer the question, what is the Magnitude of Mortality? And what are the factors associated with mortality among burn victim children admitted to South Gondar Zone Government Hospitals, Ethiopia, from 2015 to 2019?

Methods
Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was used to study 348 hospitalized burn victim pediatrics’, from 2015 to 2019. A simple random sampling method was used. Data were exported from Epidata to SPSS version 23 for analysis. Significant of the variables were declared when a p-value is < 0.05.

Result
The mortality rate of burn victim children in this study was 8.5% (95% CI = 5.5–11.4). Medical insurance none users burn victim children were more likely (AOR 3.700; 95% CI =1.2–11.5) to die as compared with medical insurance users, burn victim children with malnutrition were more risk (AOR 3.9; 95% CI = 1.3–12.2) of mortality as compared with well-nourished child. Moreover, electrical (AOR 7.7; 95% CI = 1.8–32.5.2) and flame burn (AOR 3.3; 95% CI = 1.2–9.0), total body surface area greater than 20% of burn were more likely (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 1.8–11.8) to die compared to less than 20% burn area and burn victim children admitted with poor clinical condition at admission were four times (AOR 4.1, 95% CI = 1.3–12.0) of mortality compared to a good clinical condition.

Conclusion
The mortality among burn victim children was higher than most of the studies conducted all over the world. Medical insurance none users, being malnourished, burned by electrical and flame burn, having total body surface area burnt greater than 20%, and having poor clinical condition at addition were significantly associated with mortality of burn victim pediatrics. Therefore, timely identification and monitoring of burn injury should be necessary to prevent mortality of burn victim pediatrics.