A comparison of outcome measures used to report clubfoot treatment with the Ponseti method: results from a cohort in Harare, Zimbabwe.

BACKGROUND:
There are various established scoring systems to assess the outcome of clubfoot treatment after correction with the Ponseti method. We used five measures to compare the results in a cohort of children followed up for between 3.5 to 5 years.

METHODS:
In January 2017 two experienced physiotherapists assessed children who had started treatment between 2011 and 2013 in one clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. The length of time in treatment was documented. The Roye score, Bangla clubfoot assessment tool, the Assessing Clubfoot Treatment (ACT) tool, proportion of relapsed and of plantigrade feet were used to assess the outcome of treatment in the cohort. Inter-observer variation was calculated for the two physiotherapists. A comparative analysis of the entire cohort, the children who had completed casting and the children who completed more than two years of bracing was undertaken. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated for the five measures and compared to full clinical assessment (gold standard) and whether referral for further intervention was required for re-casting or surgical review.

RESULTS:
31% (68/218) of the cohort attended for examination and were assessed. Of the children who were assessed, 24 (35%) had attended clinic reviews for 4-5 years, and 30 (44%) for less than 2 years. There was good inter-observer agreement between the two expert physiotherapists on all assessment tools. Overall success of treatment varied between 56 and 93% using the different outcome measures. The relapse assessment had the highest unnecessary referrals (19.1%), and the Roye score the highest proportion of missed referrals (22.7%). The ACT and Bangla score missed the fewest number of referrals (7.4%). The Bangla score demonstrated 79.2% (95%CI: 57.8-92.9%) sensitivity and 79.5% (95%CI: 64.7-90.2%) specificity and the ACT score had 79.2% (95%CI: 57.8-92.9%) sensitivity and 100% (95%CI: 92-100%) specificity in predicting the need for referral.

CONCLUSION:
At three to five years of follow up, the Ponseti method has a good success rate that improves if the child has completed casting and at least two years of bracing. The ACT score demonstrates good diagnostic accuracy for the need for referral for further intervention (specialist opinion or further casting). All tools demonstrated good reliability.

Ponseti clubfoot management: changing surgical trends in Nigeria.

Congenital clubfoot treatment continues to be controversial particularly in a resource-constrained country. Comparative evaluation of clubfoot surgery with Ponseti methods has not been reported in West Africa.To determine the effects of Ponseti techniques on clubfoot surgery frequency and patterns in Nigeria.This was a prospective hospital-based intention-to-treat comparative study of clubfoot managed with Ponseti methods (PCG) and extensive soft tissue surgery (NPCG). The first step was a nonselective double-blind randomization of clubfoot patients into two groups using Excel software in a university teaching hospital setting. The control group was the NPCG patients. The patients’ parents gave informed consent, and the medical research and ethics board approved the study protocol. Biodata was gathered, clubfoot patterns were analyzed, Dimeglio-Bensahel scoring was done, the number of casts applied was tallied, and patterns of surgeries were documented. The cost of care, recurrence and outcomes were evaluated. Kruskal-Wallis analysis and Mann-Whitney U technique were used, and an alpha error of < 0.05 at a CI of 95% were taken to be significant.We randomized 153 clubfeet (in 105 clubfoot patients) into two treatment groups. Fifty NPCG patients (36.2%) underwent manipulation and extensive soft tissue surgery and 55 PCG patients (39.9%) were treated with Ponseti methods. Fifty-two patients of the Ponseti group had no form of surgery (94.5% vs. 32%, p<0.000). Extensive soft tissue surgery was indicated in 17 (34.0%) of the NPCG group, representing 8.9% of the total of 191 major orthopaedic surgeries within the study period. Thirty-five patients (70.0%) from the NPCG group required more than six casts compared to thirteen patients (23.6%) of the PCG (p<0.000). The mean care cost was high within the NPCG when compared to the Ponseti group (48% vs. 14.5%, p<0.000). The Ponseti-treated group had fewer treatment complications (p<0.003), a lower recurrence rate (p<0.000) and satisfactory early outcome (p<0.000).Major clubfoot surgery was not commonly indicated among patients treated with the Ponseti method. The Ponseti clubfoot technique has reduced total care costs, cast utilization, clubfoot surgery frequency and has also changed the patterns of surgery performed for clubfoot in Nigeria.

Peters anomaly with post axial polydactyly, bilateral camptodactyly and club foot in a Kenyan neonate: a case report.

A case of bilateral Peters anomaly with bilateral post axial polydactyly, bilateral camptodactyly, and club foot was examined in a neonatal Kenyan baby girl of African descent who had been delivered in the hospital and admitted to the newborn unit. She died aged five days. There are no cases of Peters anomaly recorded in Africa according to a literature search. In addition, available data point to the majority of the principal associations in Peters anomaly to be genitourinary anomalies, making this case a rare one in its isolated collection of musculoskeletal associations.A Kenyan baby girl of African descent who was born through a caesarean section presented in the new born unit of our hospital with bilateral corneal opacities, bilateral polydactyly, camptodactyly and club foot.This is a rare case of Peters anomaly and its association with multiple musculoskeletal abnormalities makes it special.

[Place of double arthrodesis in the management of irreducible talipes equinovarus].

La prise en charge du pied bot varus équin invétéré ( PBVEI) pose d’énormes problèmes thérapeutiques. La double arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio-tarsienne longtemps considérée comme la solution de sécurité pour ces déformations est encore couramment utilisée. Nous rapportons une série de 13 enfants opérés pour un pied bot varus équin invétérés (16 pieds) par Arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne réalisée au service d’orthopédie pédiatrique du CHU Hassan II ; de Fès au Maroc sur une période de 4 ans ; étalée de janvier 2009 à décembre 2012. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 12,6 ans avec prédominance féminine. L’origine congénitale était retrouvée chez 10 patients. L’atteinte était gauche chez 8 patients avec une localisation bilatérale chez 3 patients. La radiographie standard du pied de face et de profil a révélée une divergence talo-calcanéenne qui variait entre 5 et 20°, l’angle talus-1er métatarsien entre 20 et 40° (avec une moyenne de 28°) et l’angle calcanéus-5ème métatarsien entre 15° et 45° (avec une moyenne de 30°). Tous les patients ont bénéficiés d’une arthrodèse sous-talienne et médio tarsienne. Les résultats étaient satisfaisants dans 98% des cas. Le pied était plantigrade dans 9 cas, le varus de l’arrière pied persistait dans 4 pieds alors que l’équin et le varus de l’avant pied étaient notés chez 2 cas. La double arthrodèse est l’intervention idéale pour stabiliser et corriger les déformations rencontrées dans le PBVE invétéré , elle assure totalement le verrouillage du couple de torsion. Elle permet outre une correction des diverses déformations et une ré-axation de l’arrière-pied dans les 3 plans de l’espace.

From cutting to casting: impact and initial barriers to the Ponseti method of clubfoot treatment in China.

In 2005, a nationwide clubfoot treatment program focused on the Ponseti method -an effective, affordable and minimally-invasive method- was initiated in China. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify barriers to the program. A qualitative study (rapid ethnographic study) was conducted using semi-structured interviews of 44 physicians who attended four of the 10 Ponseti training workshops, focus groups with parents of children with clubfoot, and observation. Several barriers to the Ponseti method are quite unique due to China’s size, socio-economics, culture, politics, and healthcare systems. The barriers were classified into seven themes: (i) physician education, (ii) caregiver compliance, (iii) culture, (iv) public awareness, (v) poverty, (vi) financial constraints for physicians/hospitals, and (vii) challenges of the treatment process. A number of suggestions that could be helpful in reducing or eliminating the effects of these barriers were also identified: (i) pamphlets explaining clubfoot and treatment for caregivers, (ii) directories of Ponseti providers, (iii) funding/financial support, and (iv) improving public awareness. The information from this study provides healthcare planners with knowledge to assist in meeting the needs of the population and continued implementation of effective and culturally appropriate awareness and treatment programs for clubfoot throughout China.

Results of clubfoot treatment after manipulation and casting using the Ponseti method: experience in Harare, Zimbabwe.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the Ponseti manipulation and casting method for clubfoot in a tertiary hospital in Zimbabwe and explore predictors of these outcomes.A cohort study included children with idiopathic clubfoot managed from 2011 to 2013 at Parirenyatwa Hospital. Demographic data, clinical features and treatment outcomes were extracted from clinic records. The primary outcome measure was the final Pirani score (clubfoot severity measure) after manipulation and casting. Secondary outcomes included change in Pirani score (pre-treatment to end of casting), number of casts for correction, proportion receiving tenotomy and proportion lost to follow up.A total of 218 children (337 feet) were eligible for inclusion. The median age at treatment was 8 months; 173 children (268 feet) completed casting treatment within the study period. The mean length of time for corrective treatment was 10.2 weeks (9.5-10.9 weeks). Of the 45 children who did not complete treatment, 28 were under treatment and 17 were lost to follow up. A Pirani score of 1 or less was achieved in 85% of feet. Mean Pirani score at presentation was 3.80 (SD 1.15) and post-treatment 0.80 (SD 0.56, P-value <0.0001). Severity of deformity and being male were associated with a higher (worse) final Pirani score. Severity and age over two were associated with an increase in the number of casts required to correct deformity.This case series demonstrates that the majority (80%+) of children with clubfoot can achieve a good outcome with the Ponseti manipulation and casting method.

Ponseti clubfoot management: Experience with the Steenbeek foot abduction brace.

Clubfoot is one of the most common congenital deformities, with an incidence of one in 1000 live births worldwide. In Kenya, approximately 1200 infants are born with clubfoot every year. Left untreated, clubfoot leads to painful, disabling deformity and social stigmatization. Bracing is an integral part of the internationally accepted standard of care, and the Ponseti method of clubfoot management with compliance with bracing is considered to be the key to a successful outcome (1). This has brought the type of brace under scrutiny, with newer ‘child-friendly’ braces recommended over the traditional Dennis Brown brace (Figure 1), which has been associated with high rates of noncompliance. However, these child-friendly braces are expensive (USD$300) and out of reach for most families of affected children in Kenya and other developing countries. The Steenbeek foot abduction brace (SFAB) is made locally in Kenya at a cost of <USD$10 (Figure 2). The SFAB has been in use since the inception of the Clubfoot Care for Kenya (CCK) program in 2005. Therefore, we performed a study investigating SFAB acceptance, tolerability, compliance, complications and outcomes in the CCK program.

Initial program evaluation of the Ponseti method in Nigeria.

The Ponseti method for correcting clubfoot is a safe, effective, and low-cost treatment that has recently been implemented in Nigeria. This study evaluates the initial impact of the Ponseti method and the unique challenges to its diffusion among practitioners and patients. Information was obtained by traveling to Ponseti clinics to interview or give questionnaires to the Ponseti method practitioners and the parents of children with clubfoot. The challenges identified among the practitioners were: 1) an inadequate amount of information; 2) inadequate resources; 3) insufficient training programs; and 4) a lack of funding. The challenges among parents were: 1) a deficit in knowledge about clubfoot and its treatment; 2) financial constraints; 3) culture and religious practices, and 4) difficulties with treatment compliance. Information from this study can be used to implement specific strategies to improve the dissemination and implementation of the Ponseti method for treating clubfoot in Nigeria and throughout West African nations that share cultural and socioeconomic commonalities.

The impact of the Ponseti treatment method on parents and caregivers of children with clubfoot: a comparison of two urban populations in Europe and Africa.

PURPOSE:
With the Ponseti treatment method established as the gold standard, children with clubfeet face a prolonged treatment regime that might impact on their families. We aimed to determine how Ponseti treatment influences the lives of parents and caregivers and what coping strategies they use. Secondarily, we aimed to identify any potential differences between two urban referral centres for clubfoot.

METHODS:
A total of 115 parents of children affected with idiopathic clubfoot were recruited and included in two groups: one from the United Kingdom (UK) and the other from South Africa (SA). The participants completed the following three instruments: the Impact on Family Scale (IOFS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Brief COPE.

RESULTS:
During the bracing phase, the IOFS showed a trend towards lower scores when compared to the casting phase for both cohorts (p = 0.247 and p = 0.434, respectively). The SA population scored higher than the UK in the MSPSS in both casting (p = 0.002) and bracing phases (p = 0.004) and used coping strategies at a significantly higher level when compared to the UK population (p < 0.05) in both treatment phases.

CONCLUSION:
This is the first study to show that Ponseti treatment for clubfoot causes an impact on family function. In SA, perceived social support is higher and coping strategies are used more often than in the UK to deal with the stressful circumstances of treatment.

Good results after Ponseti treatment for neglected congenital clubfoot in Ethiopia. A prospective study of 22 children (32 feet) from 2 to 10 years of age.

Neglected clubfoot deformity is a major cause of disability in low-income countries. Most children with clubfoot have little access to treatment in these countries, and they are often inadequately treated. We evaluated the effectiveness of Ponseti’s technique in neglected clubfoot in children in a rural setting in Ethiopia.A prospective study was conducted from June 2007 through July 2010. 22 consecutive children aged 2-10 years (32 feet) with neglected clubfoot were treated by the Ponseti method. The deformity was assessed using the Pirani scoring system. The average follow-up time was 3 years.A plantigrade functional foot was obtained in all patients by Ponseti casting and limited surgical intervention. 2 patients (4 feet) had recurrent deformity. They required re-manipulation and re-tenotomy of the Achilles tendon and 1 other patient required tibialis anterior transfer for dynamic supination deformity of the foot.This study shows that the Ponseti method with some additional surgery can be used successfully as the primary treatment in neglected clubfoot, and that it minimizes the need for extensive corrective surgery.