Trends and patterns of antibiotic prescribing at orthopedic inpatient departments of two private-sector hospitals in Central India: A 10-year observational study

Background
Frequent antibiotic prescribing in departments with high infection risk like orthopedics prominently contributes to the global increase of antibiotic resistance. However, few studies present antibiotic prescribing patterns and trends among orthopedic inpatients.

Aim
To compare and present the patterns and trends of antibiotic prescription over 10 years for orthopedic inpatients in a teaching (TH) and a non-teaching hospital (NTH) in Central India.

Methods
Data from orthopedic inpatients (TH-6446; NTH-4397) were collected using a prospective cross-sectional study design. Patterns were compared based on the indications and corresponding antibiotic treatments, mean Defined Daily Doses (DDD)/1000 patient-days, adherence to the National List of Essential Medicines India (NLEMI) and the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (WHOMLEM). Antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed separately for the operated and the non-operated inpatients. Linear regression was used to analyze the time trends of antibiotic prescribing; in total through DDD/1000 patient-days and by antibiotic groups.

Results
Third generation cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotic class (TH-39%; NTH-65%) and fractures were the most common indications (TH-48%; NTH-48%). Majority of the operated inpatients (TH-99%; NTH-97%) were prescribed pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics. The non-operated inpatients were also prescribed antibiotics (TH-40%; NTH-75%), although few of them had infectious diagnoses (TH-8%; NTH-14%). Adherence to the NLEMI was lower (TH-31%; NTH-34%) than adherence to the WHOMLEM (TH-65%; NTH-62%) in both hospitals. Mean DDD/1000 patient-days was 16 times higher in the TH (2658) compared to the NTH (162). Total antibiotic prescribing increased over 10 years (TH-β = 3.23; NTH-β = 1.02).

Conclusion
Substantial number of inpatients were prescribed antibiotics without clear infectious indications. Adherence to the NLEMI and the WHOMLEM was low in both hospitals. Antibiotic use increased in both hospitals over 10 years and was higher in the TH than in the NTH. The need for developing and implementing local antibiotic prescribing guidelines is emphasized.

Towards a framework approach to integrating pathways for infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship in surgery: a qualitative study from India and South Africa

Background The surgical pathway remains a hard to reach, critical target for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infection prevention and control (IPC). We investigated the drivers for surgical AMS and IPC, across cardiovascular and thoracic surgery (CVTS) and gastrointestinal surgery teams in two academic hospitals in South Africa (SA) and India. Materials and methods An ethnographic observational study of IPC and AMS was conducted (July 2018–August 2019), with data gathered from 190 hours of non-participant observations (138 India, 60 SA); face-to-face interviews with patients (6 India, 7 South Africa), and healthcare professionals (HCPs) (44 India, 61 SA); and, in-depth patient case studies (4 India, 2 SA). A grounded theory approach aided by Nvivo 11 software, analyzed the emerging themes. An iterative and recursive process of moving between the coded data and the higher-level themes, ensured saturation of the themes. The multiple modes of enquiry enabled cross-validation and triangulation of findings. Results Across surgical pathways, multiple barriers exist impeding effective IPC and AMS practices. The existing, implicit roles of HCPs (including nurses, and senior surgeons) are overlooked as interventions target junior doctors, bypassing the opportunity for integrating care across the surgical team members. Critically, the ownership of decisions remains with the operating surgeons and entrenched hierarchies restrict the integration of other HCPs in IPC and AMS. Conclusions IPC and AMS are not integrated in surgery. Identifying the implicit existing HCPs roles in IPC and AMS is critical and will facilitate the development of effective and transparent processes across the surgical team for IPC and AMS. Developing a framework approach that includes nurse leadership, empowering pharmacists and engaging surgical leads is essential for integrated care.