Anorectal Malformation Patients’ Outcomes After Definitive Surgery Using Krickenbeck Classification: A Cross-Sectional Study

Background
The survival of anorectal malformation (ARM) patients has been improved in the last 10 years because of the improvement in management of neonatal care and surgical approaches for ARM patients. Thus, the current management of ARM patients are focusing on the functional outcomes after definitive surgery. Here, we defined the type of ARM and assessed the functional outcomes, including voluntary bowel movement (VBM), soiling, and constipation, in our patients following definitive surgery using Krickenbeck classification.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional study to retrospectively review medical records of ARM patients who underwent a definitive surgery at Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Indonesia, from 2011 to 2016.
Results
Forty-three ARM patients were ascertained in this study, of whom 30 males and 13 females. Most patients (83.7%) were normal birth weight. There were ARM without fistula (41.9%), followed by rectourethral fistula (25.5%), perineal fistula (18.6%), vestibular fistula (9.3%), and rectovesical fistula (4.7%). The VBM was achived in 53.5% patients, while the soiling and constipation rates were 11.6% and 9.3%, respectively. Interestingly, patients with normal birth weight showed higher frequency of VBM than those with low birth weight (OR = 9.4; 95% CI = 1.0-86.9; p = 0.04), while male patients also had better VBM than females (OR = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.0-15.6) which almost reached a significant level (p = 0.09). However, VBM was not affected by ARM type (p = 0.26). Furthermore, there were no significant associations between gender, birth weight, and ARM type with soiling and constipation, with p-values of 1.0, 1.0, and 0.87; and 0.57, 1.0, and 0.94, respectively.
Conclusions
Functional outcomes of ARM patients in our hospital are considered relatively good with more than half of children showing VBM and only relatively few patients suffering from soiling and constipation. The frequency of VBM might be associated with birth weight and gender, but not ARM type, while the soiling and constipation did not appear to be correlated with birth weight, gender, nor ARM type. Further multicenter study is necessary to compare our findings with other centers.

Delayed access to care and unmet burden of pediatric surgical disease in resource-constrained African countries.

The purpose of this study was to estimate the unmet burden of surgically correctable congenital anomalies in African low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).We conducted a chart review of children operated for cryptorchidism, isolated cleft lip, hypospadias, bladder exstrophy and anorectal malformation at an Ethiopian referral hospital between January 2012 and July 2016 and a scoping review of the literature describing the management of congenital anomalies in African LMICs. Procedure numbers and age at surgery were collected to estimate mean surgical delays by country and extrapolate surgical backlog. The unmet surgical need was derived from incidence-based disease estimates, established disability weights, and actual surgical volumes.The chart review yielded 210 procedures in 207 patients from Ethiopia. The scoping review generated 42 data sets, extracted from 36 publications, encompassing: Benin, Egypt, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria, Madagascar, Malawi, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The largest national surgical backlog was noted in Nigeria for cryptorchidism (209,260 cases) and cleft lip (4154 cases), and Ethiopia for hypospadias (20,188 cases), bladder exstrophy (575 cases) and anorectal malformation (1349 cases).These data support the need for upscaling pediatric surgical capacity in LMICs to address the significant surgical delay, surgical backlog, and unmet prevalent need.Retrospective study and review article LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.