Postoperative acute multiple organ failure after hepatectomy in a Nigerian male with sickle cell trait: a case report

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Postoperative acute multiple organ failure after hepatectomy in a Nigerian male with sickle cell trait: a case report


JournalSurgical Case Reports volume
Article typeJournal research article – Case report / series
Publication date – Jan – 2021
Authors – Toshimitsu Iwasaki, Satoshi Nara, Yuuki Nishimura, Hiroki Ueda, Yoji Kishi, Minoru Esaki, Kazuaki Shimada & Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
KeywordsHepatectomy, Liver failure, Multiple organ failure, Sickle cell crisis, Sickle cell disease, Sickle cell trait, Vaso-occlusive crisis
Open access – Yes
SpecialityGeneral surgery, Surgical oncology
World region Western Africa
Country: Nigeria
Language – English
Submitted to the One Surgery Index on January 30, 2021 at 7:34 am
Abstract:

Background
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disease characterized by sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Patients homozygous for HbS experience symptoms resulting from sickled erythrocytes no later than adolescence. However, heterozygous HbS carriers, or those with the so-called sickle cell trait (SCT), may undergo surgery without their hemoglobinopathy being known.

Case presentation
A 53-year-old Nigerian male with hepatitis C infection underwent radiofrequency ablation therapy for multiple hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) 17 months prior. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed a solitary tumor (3.2 cm) in the medial section of the cirrhotic liver. The Child–Pugh score was five, and the indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min was 17.4%. The nontumorous liver of the medial section accounted for 10% of the total liver volume according to CT volumetry. With the diagnosis of recurrent HCC, left medial sectionectomy was performed under intermittent blood flow occlusion by Pringle’s maneuver. Intraoperative ultrasonography confirmed that hepatic blood flow had been preserved after hepatectomy. However, laboratory tests on postoperative day (POD) 1 revealed severe liver damage: aspartate aminotransferase 9250 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase 6120 IU/L, total bilirubin 2.8 mg/dL, and prothrombin time% 20.9%. The patient’s renal and respiratory functions also deteriorated; therefore, continuous hemodiafiltration and plasma exchange were initiated under mechanical ventilation. Whole-body contrast-enhanced CT showed no apparent ischemia of the remnant liver, but diffuse cerebral infarction was detected. Despite intensive treatments, he died of multiple organ failure on POD 20. The pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the intrahepatic peripheral vessels were occluded by sickled erythrocytes. Additionally, chromatographic analysis of hemoglobin detected the presence of abnormal hemoglobin, although microscopic examination of the peripheral blood erythrocytes did not show morphological abnormalities. Based on these findings, we determined that he had SCT and developed vaso-occlusive crisis involving multiple organs just after hepatectomy.

Conclusion
SCD is a rare disease in eastern Asia, but its prevalence is increasing globally. Surgeons should pay increased attention to this disease, especially when performing hepatectomy under blood flow occlusion.

OSI Number – 20911

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