Fears and barriers: problems in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Pakistan

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Fears and barriers: problems in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Pakistan


JournalBMC Women’s Health
Article typeJournal research article – Clinical research
Publication date – Apr – 2021
Authors – Sidra Saeed, Muhammad Asim , Malik Muhammad Sohail
KeywordsBreast Cancer, Feminine sensitivity, Inadequate fnancial resources, Pakistan, Social support, Stigmatization
Open access – Yes
SpecialityGeneral surgery, Surgical oncology
World region Southern Asia
Country: Pakistan
Language – English
Submitted to the One Surgery Index on April 22, 2021 at 1:26 am
Abstract:

Background
Women in Pakistan lack appropriate awareness about diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer due to a range of multifaceted barriers. There is a dearth of literature examining the socio-cultural factors that inhibit women from breast cancer screening, diagnosis and treatment in Punjab, Pakistan. Addressing this gap, this qualitative study sought to identify and explore the barriers that hinder women from seeking timely screening and treatment.

Methods
In this process 45 women (age = 18–50 years) with breast cancer were purposively sampled and interviewed from the Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine (PINUM) hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Results
An inductive approach was used to analyze the data which resulted in the emergence of eight subthemes under the umbrella of three major themes that delineate individual, socio-cultural and structural barriers to seek screening and treatment of breast cancer in Punjab. Individual barriers included lack of awareness, hesitance in accepting social support, and spiritual healing. The identified socio-cultural factors included feminine sensitivity, stigmatization, and aversion to male doctors. Lack of financial resources and apathetic medical services were structural barriers that hinder screening and treatment.

Conclusions
These barriers can be addressed through raising awareness and community mobilization about breast-self exam and treatment. The healthcare system should also pay attention to socio-psychological and cultural factors impeding women’s access to available health facilities.

OSI Number – 21026

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