Decompressive Craniectomy in Traumatic Brain Injury: An Institutional Experience of 131 Cases in Two Years

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Decompressive Craniectomy in Traumatic Brain Injury: An Institutional Experience of 131 Cases in Two Years


JournalNeurotrauma Reports
Publication date – Oct – 2020
Authors – Ana Cristina Veiga Silva, Matheus Araújo de Oliveira Farias, Luiz Severo Bem Jr., Marcelo Moraes Valença, and Hildo Rocha Cirne de Azevedo Filho
Keywordsroad traffic accidents, TBI, traumatic brain injury
Open access – Yes
SpecialityEmergency surgery, Neurosurgery, Trauma surgery
World region South America
Country: Brazil
Language – English
Submitted to the One Surgery Index on November 13, 2020 at 4:46 am
Abstract:

Decompressive craniectomy (DC) effectively reduces intracranial pressure (ICP), but is not considered to be a first-line procedure. We retrospectively analyzed sociodemographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics associated with the prognosis of patients who underwent DC to treat traumatic intracranial hypertension (ICH) at the Restauração Hospital (HR) in Recife, Brazil between 2015 and 2016, and compared the clinical features with surgical timing and functional outcome at discharge. The data were collected from 131 medical records in the hospital database. A significant majority of the patients were young adults (age 18-39 years old; 75/131; 57.3%) and male (118/131; 90.1%). Road traffic accidents, particularly those involving motorcycles (57/131; 44.5%), were the main cause of the traumatic event. At initial evaluation, 63 patients (48.8%) were classified with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Pupil examination showed no abnormalities for 91 patients (71.1%), and acute subdural hematoma was the most frequently observed lesion (83/212; 40%). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score was used to categorize surgical results and 51 patients (38.9%) had an unfavorable outcome. Only the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission (score of 3-8) was more likely to be associated with unfavorable outcome (p-value = 0.009), indicating that this variable may be a determinant of mortality and prognostic of poor outcome. Patients who underwent an operation sooner after injury, despite having a worse condition on admission, presented with clinical results that were similar to those of patients who underwent surgery 12 h after hospital admission. These results emphasize the importance of early DC for management of severe TBI. This study shows that DC is a common procedure used to manage TBI patients at HR.

OSI Number – 20746

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