Essential Vascular Surgical Care in Low and Middle Income Countries: Towards the Tipping Point

We read with great interest Prendes et al.’ s commentary on lower limb revascularisation in low and middle income countries (LMICs). It has become increasingly apparent that the burden of vascular diseases disproportionally affects vulnerable and LMIC populations as a result of the epidemiological transition away from infectious diseases and towards non-communicable diseases, as a result of the rise in smoking, air pollution, obesity, diabetes, and trauma. Access to emergency and essential vascular surgical care, however, is grossly lacking in LMICs.

An Endovascular Surgery Experience in Far-Forward Military Healthcare-A Case Series

Introduction: The advancement of interventional neuroradiology has drastically altered the treatment of stroke and trauma patients. These advancements in first-world hospitals, however, have rarely reached far forward military hospitals due to limitations in expertise and equipment. In an established role III military hospital though, these life-saving procedures can become an important tool in trauma care.

Materials and methods: We report a retrospective series of far-forward endovascular cases performed by 2 deployed dual-trained neurosurgeons at the role III hospital in Kandahar, Afghanistan during 2013 and 2017 as part of Operations Resolute Support and Enduring Freedom.

Results: A total of 15 patients were identified with ages ranging from 5 to 42 years old. Cases included 13 diagnostic cerebral angiograms, 2 extremity angiograms and interventions, 1 aortogram and pelvic angiogram, 1 bilateral embolization of internal iliac arteries, 1 lingual artery embolization, 1 administration of intra-arterial thrombolytic, and 2 mechanical thrombectomies for acute ischemic stroke. There were no complications from the procedures. Both embolizations resulted in hemorrhage control, and 1 of 2 stroke interventions resulted in the improvement of the NIH stroke scale.

Conclusions: Interventional neuroradiology can fill an important role in military far forward care as these providers can treat both traumatic and atraumatic cerebral and extracranial vascular injuries. In addition, knowledge and skill with vascular access and general interventional radiology principles can be used to aid in other lifesaving interventions. As interventional equipment becomes more available and portable, this relatively young specialty can alter the treatment for servicemen and women who are injured downrange.

Ultrasound-guided Thrombin Injection for Treatment of Iatrogenic Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Compared With Open Surgery: First Experiences From a Single Institution

Purpose
The frequency of iatrogenic femoral artery pseudoaneurysm (FAP) diagnoses has recently increased due to the growing use of diagnostic and interventional procedures involving large diameter sheaths, as well as more potent anticoagulation procedures. In this study, we aimed to present our experience with ultrasound-guided thrombin injection (UGTI) in patients with iatrogenic FAP.
Methods
We studied patients with FAP who were under anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapies preoperatively, or who had received a loading dose during an interventional procedure. The outcomes of patients with FAP treated with UGTI were compared with those of patients who underwent open surgical repair for pseudoaneurysms.
Results
Among the 55 patients included in this study, 24 had UGTI while 31 had open surgery. The success rate was 95.8% when taking into consideration primary and secondary attempts. The mean duration of the procedure was shorter in patients with UGTI (10.1 ± 3.54 minutes) when compared with those who underwent open surgery (76.55 ± 26.74 minutes, P ≤ 0.001). In addition, the total complication frequency was significantly higher in the open surgery group (P = 0.005), as was their length of hospital stay (P < 0.001). Cost analysis showed significant differences between UGTI ($227.50 ± $82.90) and open surgery ($471.20 ± $437.60, P = 0.01).
Conclusion
We have found that UGTI is the safer and more effective choice of treatment in appropriate patients with FAP, as opposed to surgery

Optical Trocar Causing Aortic Injury: A Potentially Fatal Complication of Minimal Access Surgery

Trocar injury to abdominal aorta is uncommon and even rare with optical trocars. Such injury, resulting from umbilical trocar insertion, is potentially fatal. It often causes on-table death due to torrential life-threatening haemorrhage and unavailability of expert vascular help. We present a rare case of an injury to infra-renal abdominal aorta, caused by optical trocar insertion for bariatric surgery. Immediate recognition of the injury, deployment of life-saving manoeuvres, timely resuscitation, followed by definitive repair of aorta by vascular surgeon was life-saving for this patient. The recovery phase was uneventful and patient had no residual clinical problems during follow-up.

Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Angolan Adults: A Descriptive Analysis from CardioBengo, a Community-Based Survey.

From a community-based survey conducted in Angola, 468 individuals aged 40 to 64 years and not using drug therapy were evaluated according to the World Health Organisation STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Using data from tobacco use, blood pressure, blood glucose, and total cholesterol levels, we estimated the 10-year risk of a fatal or nonfatal major cardiovascular event and computed the proportion of untreated participants eligible for pharmacological treatment according to clinical values alone and total cardiovascular risk. The large majority of participants were classified as having a low (<10%) 10-year cardiovascular risk (87.6%), with only 4.5% having a high (≥ 20%) cardiovascular risk. If we consider the single criteria for hypertension, 48.7% of the population should be considered for treatment. This value decreases to 22.0% if we apply the risk prediction chart. The use of hypoglycaemic drugs does not present any differences (19.0% in both situations). The use of lipid-lowering drugs (3.8%) is only recommended by the risk prediction chart. This study reveals the need of integrated approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders in this population. Risk prediction charts can be used as a way to promote a better use of limited resources.

Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Clinical Outcomes with Ventricular Assist Devices.

Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for worse outcomes after major cardiovascular interventions. Furthermore, individuals with lower SES face barriers to evaluation for advanced heart failure therapies, including ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation.Examination of the effects of individual determinants of SES on VAD outcomes will show similar survival benefit in patients with lower compared with higher SES.All VAD implants at the University of Florida from January 2008 through December 2015 were reviewed. Patient-level determinants of SES included place of residence, education level, marital status, insurance status, and financial resources stratified by percent federal poverty level. Survival or transplantation at 1 year, 30-day readmission, implant length of stay (LOS), and an aggregate of VAD-related complications were assessed in univariate fashion and multivariable regression modelling.A total of 111 patients were included (mean age at time of implant 57.6 years, 82.8% men). More than half received destination therapy. At 1 year, 78.3% were alive on device support or had undergone successful transplantation. There were no differences in survival, 30-day readmission, or aggregate VAD complications by SES category. Although patients with lower levels of education had longer LOS in univariate analysis, on multivariable ordinal regression modelling, this relationship was no longer seen.Patients with lower SES receive the same survival benefit from VAD implantation and are not more likely to have 30-day readmissions, complications of device support, or prolonged implant LOS. Therefore, VAD implantation should not be withheld based on these parameters alone.

Global Incidence and Outcomes of Adult Patients With Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

OBJECTIVES:
To estimate the global incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery in adult patients.

DESIGN:
A systematic review and meta-analysis.

SETTING:
Cardiac surgery wards.

PARTICIPANTS:
Adult patients after cardiac surgery

INTERVENTIONS:
None.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:
The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, OVID, and EMBASE databases for all articles on cardiac surgery patients published during 2004 to 2014. Meta-analyses were conducted to generate pooled incidence, mortality, ICU length of stay, and length of hospital stay. The authors also described the variations according to study design, criteria of AKI, surgical methods, countries, continents, and their economies. After a primary and secondary screen, 91 observational studies with 320,086 patients were identified. The pooled incidence rates of AKI were 22.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.8 to 25.1) in total and 13.6%, 3.8%, and 2.7% at stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively, whereas 2.3% of patients received renal replacement therapy. The pooled short-term and long-term mortality were 10.7% and 30%, respectively, and increased along with the severity of stages. The pooled unadjusted odds ratio for short-term and long-term mortality in patients with AKI relative to patients without AKI was 0.144 (95% CI, 0.108 to 0.192, p<0.001) and 0.342 (95% CI 0.287-0.407, p<0.001), respectively. The pooled average ICU length of stay and length of hospital stay in the AKI group were 5.4 and 15 days, respectively, while they were 2.2 and 10.5 days in the no-AKI group.

CONCLUSIONS:
AKI is a great burden for patients undergoing cardiac surgery and can affect short-term and long-term prognoses of these patients.

Problems of amputation surgery in a developing country.

We studied prospectively 87 patients who underwent extremity amputation in the National Orthopaedic Hospital in Lagos in 1995-1996. Trauma from road traffic accident was the most common indication (34/87) with peripheral vascular disease being the least encountered (2/87). Traditional bonesetters’ gangrene accounted for 9/87 cases in circumstances that were largely avoidable. Our study revealed that amputation is still being performed as a life-saving procedure, as 44/87 patients presented with gangrene of a limb. The nonavailability of special investigations such as Doppler ultrasound, arteriography, and CT scan was responsible for a delay in definitive treatment in 28 cases. Poor prosthetic services and the absence of a well-coordinated amputee clinic were responsible for some of the unsatisfactory results. We believe that the availability of specialized diagnostic tools and facilities for microvascular surgery, together with a multidisciplinary approach to the management of the amputee, would considerably change the current gloomy picture of amputation in developing countries such as Nigeria.