Management guidelines of penile cancer- a contemporary review of sub-Saharan Africa

Background
Penile cancer is a rare malignancy with prevalence higher in areas of high Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) such as Africa, Asia and South America. In middle- and low-income countries where circumcision is not routinely practiced, the rate of penile cancer could be ten times higher.

Main body of the abstract
A literature review was conducted from 1992 to 2019 using PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal Online and Google with inclusion of 27 publications with emphasis on the Sub-Saharan literature. Findings revealed that most men with penile cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) present with locally advanced to advanced disease with devastating consequences. The option of penile sparing procedure is reduced with most treatment option directed to mutilating surgeries. The lack of appropriate chemotherapy and radiotherapy worsens the prognosis in the region.

Short conclusion
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination may not be cost-effective for most regions in SSA. Therefore, early childhood circumcision might be the best advocated alternative for prevention.

Economic benefits and costs of surgery for filarial hydrocele in Malawi

Background
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in 72 countries of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. An estimated 25 million men live with the disabling effects of filarial hydrocele. Hydrocele can be corrected with surgery with few complications. For most men, hydrocelectomy reduces or corrects filarial hydrocele and permits them to resume regular activities of daily living and gainful employment.

Methodology and principal findings
This study measures the economic loss due to filarial hydrocele and the benefits of hydrocelectomy and is based on pre- and post-operative surveys of patients in southern Malawi. We find the average number of days of work lost due to filarial hydrocele and daily earnings for men in rural Malawi. We calculate average annual lost earnings and find the present discounted value for all years from the time of surgery to the end of working life. We estimate the total costs of surgery. We compare the benefit of the work capacity restored to the costs of surgery to determine the benefit-cost ratio. For men younger than 65 years old, the average annual earnings loss attributed to hydrocele is US$126. The average discounted present value of lifetime earnings loss for those men is US$1684. The average budgetary cost of the hydrocelectomy is US$68. The ratio of the benefit of surgery to its costs is US$1684/US$68 or 24.8. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the results are robust to variations in cost of surgery and length of working life.

Conclusion
The lifetime benefits of hydrocelectomy–to the man, his family, and his community–far exceed the costs of repairing the hydrocele. Scaling up subsidies to hydrocelectomy campaigns should be a priority for governments and international aid organizations to prevent and alleviate disability and lost earnings that aggravate poverty among the many millions of men with filarial hydrocele.

The Burden of Urological Disease in Zomba, Malawi: A Needs Assessment in a sub-Saharan Tertiary Care Center

Introduction: A large part of the developing world continues to lack access to surgical care. Urology remains one of the least represented surgical subspecialties in global health. To begin understanding the burden of urological illness in sub-Saharan Africa, we sought to characterize all patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Malawi with a urological diagnosis or related complaint in the past year.

Methods: Retrospective review of the surgical clinic and surgical theater record books at Zomba Central Hospital (ZCH) was performed over a one-year time span. Patients presenting with urological diagnoses or undergoing a urological procedure under local or general anesthetic in the operating theater were identified and entered into a database.

Results: We reviewed 440 clinical patients. The most common clinical presentations were for urinary retention (34.7%) and lower urinary tract symptoms (15.5%). A total of 182 surgical cases were reviewed. The most common diagnoses for surgical patients were urethral stricture disease (22%), bladder masses (17%), and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms (14.8%). Urethral stricture-related procedures, including direct visual internal urethrotomy and urethral dilatation, were the most common (14.2% and 7.7%, respectively). BPH-related procedures, including simple prostatectomy and transurethral resection of the prostate were the second most common (6.7% and 8.2%, respectively).

Conclusions: Urethral stricture disease, BPH, and urinary retention represent the clinical diagnoses with the highest burden of visits. Despite these numbers, few definitive procedures are performed annually. Further focus on urological training in sub-Saharan Africa should focus on these conditions and their surgical management.

Stricture of Urethra: Patterns and Outcomes of Management From a Single Centre in Pakistan Over 7 Years

Objective: To determine the outcomes of urethroplasty and its complications from a large cohort of patients managed in a single centre.

Study design: Descriptive study.

Place and duration of study: Department of Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, from January 2010 to December 2016.

Methodology: A total of 546 patients with stricture urethra at different locations underwent urethroplasty from January 2010 to December 2016 were included. All patients had an ascending urethrogram followed by retrograde ± antegrade urethroscopy to assess the location and length of the stricture. Technique of urethroplasty was chosen according to the site, length and etiology. Following appropriate procedure, patients were followed up in the dedicated urethral stricture clinic. Procedure was considered successful if either no further therapeutic intervention was required and the maximum flow rate (Qmax) was >20 ml/sec with a voided volume of at least 200 mls. The procedure was regarded as unsuccessful, if further treatment was required or Qmax was <10ml/sec.

Results: A total of 546 patients with mean age of 32.3 +13.1 years (range: 12-74) involving anterior (n=323, 59.2%) or posterior (n=223, 40.8%) urethra were treated. Mean follow-up was 43.6 months (range: 3-84). The success rates of bulbar urethral strictures after excision and primary anastomosis (EPA) was 93. 3%, non-transecting urethroplasty 84.6% and oral mucosal graft (OMG), 81.8%. In penile urethral strictures, OMG, Orandi procedure and Johanson's techniques yielded success rates of 88.4%, 66.6% and 57.1%, respectively. In posterior urethral strictures, after excision and bulboprostatic anastomosis, good results were seen in 88.3%. In pan-urethral strictures, abdominal skin graft repair, combined tissue transfer and OMG urethroplasty yielded success rates of 74%, 78.5% and 75%, respectively. The complications/ adverse events were encountered in 251 / 546 (45.9%) patients in this series.

Conclusion: Anastomotic urethroplasty yielded best outcomes followed by OMG urethroplasty. In the long-term follow-up, erectile dysfunction (ED), infertility and recurrence of stricture are the main complications which need individualised management.

Diagnosis and management of 365 ureteric injuries following obstetric and gynecologic surgery in resource-limited settings.

Ureteric injuries are among the most serious complications of pelvic surgery. The incidence in low-resource settings is not well documented.This retrospective review analyzes a cohort of 365 ureteric injuries with ureterovaginal fistulas in 353 women following obstetric and gynecologic operations in 11 countries in Africa and Asia, all low-resource settings. The patients with ureteric injury were stratified into three groups according to the initial surgery: (a) obstetric operations, (b) gynecologic operations, and (c) vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repairs.The 365 ureteric injuries in this series comprise 246 (67.4%) after obstetric procedures, 65 (17.8%) after gynecologic procedures, and 54 (14.8%) after repair of obstetric fistulas. Demographic characteristics show clear differences between women with iatrogenic injuries and women with obstetric fistulas. The study describes abdominal ureter reimplantation and other treatment procedures. Overall surgical results were good: 92.9% of women were cured (326/351), 5.4% were healed with some residual incontinence (19/351), and six failed (1.7%).Ureteric injuries after obstetric and gynecologic operations are not uncommon. Unlike in high-resource contexts, in low-resource settings obstetric procedures are most often associated with urogenital fistula. Despite resource limitations, diagnosis and treatment of ureteric injuries is possible, with good success rates. Training must emphasize optimal surgical techniques and different approaches to assisted vaginal delivery.