The role of Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy in the management of a pelvic fracture distraction defect in a 24- year-old man after multiple failed reconstruction attempts

Failed Pelvic Fracture Distraction Defect repairs present a considerable challenge for management. Re-do urethroplasties for failed repairs are associated with higher recurrence and morbidity rates. The case presented describes a male patient with a pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect (PFUDD) who had undergone multiple failed repairs. The Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy was successfully carried out and the patient remains continent to date. The Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy is not commonly employed in the management of adult urethral stricture disease. We present our experience with managing a pelvic fracture urethral disruption defect (PFUDD) after multiple failed urethroplasties using a continent catheterisable urinary diversion techniqu

Consensus on Prostate Cancer Treatment of Localized Disease With Very Low, Low, and Intermediate Risk: A Report From the First Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference for Developing Countries (PCCCDC)

PURPOSE
A group of international urology and medical C developed and completed a survey on prostate cancer (PCa) in developing countries. The results are reviewed and summarized, and recommendations on consensus statements for very low-, low-, and intermediate-risk PCa focused on developing countries were developed.

METHODS
A panel of experts developed more than 300 survey questions of which 66 questions concern the principal areas of interest of this paper: very low, low, and intermediate risk of PCa in developing countries. A larger panel of 99 international multidisciplinary cancer experts voted on these questions to create the recommendations for treatment and follow-up for very low-, low-, and intermediate-risk PCa in areas of limited resources discussed in this manuscript.

RESULTS
The panel voted publicly but anonymously on the predefined questions. Each question was deemed consensus if 75% or more of the full panel had selected a particular answer. These answers are based on panelist opinion not a literature review or meta-analysis. For questions that refer to an area of limited resources, the recommendations consider cost-effectiveness and the possible therapies with easier and greater access. Each question had five to seven relevant answers including two nonanswers. The results were tabulated in real time.

CONCLUSION
The voting results and recommendations presented in this document can be used by physicians to support management for very low, low, and intermediate risk of PCa in areas of limited resources. Individual clinical decision making should be supported by available data; however, as guidelines for treatment for very low, low, and intermediate risk of PCa in developing countries have not been developed, this document will serve as a point of reference when confronted with this disease.

Consensus on Treatment and Follow-Up for Biochemical Recurrence in Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer: A Report From the First Global Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference for Developing Countries

PURPOSE
To present a summary of the treatment and follow-up recommendations for the biochemical recurrence in castration-sensitive prostate cancer (PCa) acquired through a questionnaire administered to 99 PCa experts from developing countries during the Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference for Developing Countries.

METHODS
A total of 27 questions were identified as related to this topic from more than 300 questions. The clinician’s responses were tallied and presented in a percentage format. Topics included the use of imaging for staging biochemical recurrence, treatment recommendations for three different clinical scenarios, the field of radiation recommended, and follow-up. Each question had 5-7 relevant response options, including “abstain” and/or “unqualified to answer,” and investigated not only recommendations but also if a limitation in resources would change the recommendation.

RESULTS
For most questions, a clear majority (> 50%) of clinicians agreed on a recommended treatment for imaging, treatment scenarios, and follow-up, although only a few topics reached a consensus > 75%. Limited resources did affect several areas of treatment, although in many cases, they reinforced more stringent criteria for treatment such as prostate-specific antigen values > 0.2 ng/mL and STAMPEDE inclusion criteria as a basis for recommending treatment.

CONCLUSION
A majority of clinicians working in developing countries with limited resources use similar cutoff points and selection criteria to manage patients treated for biochemically recurrent castration-sensitive PCa.

Global Epidemiology of End-Stage Kidney Disease and Disparities in Kidney Replacement Therapy

Background: The global epidemiology of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) reflects each nation’s unique genetic, environmental, lifestyle, and sociodemographic characteristics. The response to ESKD, particularly regarding kidney replacement therapy (KRT), depends on local disease burden, culture, and socioeconomics. Here, we explore geographic variation and global trends in ESKD incidence and prevalence and examine variations in KRT modality, practice patterns, and mortality. We conclude with a discussion on disparities in access to KRT and strategies to reduce ESKD global burden and to improve access to treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Summary: From 2003 to 2016, incidence rates of treated ESKD were relatively stable in many higher income countries but rose substantially predominantly in East and Southeast Asia. The prevalence of treated ESKD has increased worldwide, likely due to improving ESKD survival, population demographic shifts, higher prevalence of ESKD risk factors, and increasing KRT access in countries with growing economies. Unadjusted 5-year survival of ESKD patients on KRT was 41% in the USA, 48% in Europe, and 60% in Japan. Dialysis is the predominant KRT in most countries, with hemodialysis being the most common modality. Variations in dialysis practice patterns account for some of the differences in survival outcomes globally. Worldwide, there is a greater prevalence of KRT at higher income levels, and the number of people who die prematurely because of lack of KRT access is estimated at up to 3 times higher than the number who receive treatment. Key Messages: Many people worldwide in need of KRT as a life-sustaining treatment do not receive it, mostly in LMICs where health care resources are severely limited. This large treatment gap demands a focus on population-based prevention strategies and development of affordable and cost-effective KRT. Achieving global equity in KRT access will require concerted efforts in advocating effective public policy, health care delivery, workforce capacity, education, research, and support from the government, private sector, nongovernmental, and professional organizations.

Genitourinary reconstructive surgery curriculum and postgraduate training program development in the Caribbean

Objectives: To describe the development of a genitourinary reconstructive fellowship curriculum and the establishment of the first genitourinary reconstructive and pelvic floor postgraduate training program in the Caribbean.

Methods: In an effort to respond to the need for specialty-trained reconstructive urologists in the Dominican Republic, we developed an18-month fellowship program to train local surgeons. The process began with creation of a curriculum and partnership with in-country physicians, societies, hospitals, and government officials. We sought accreditation via a well-established local university, and fellowship candidates were selected. A database was maintained to track outcomes. Subjective and objective reviews were performed of the fellows.

Results: The first fellow graduated in 2018, the second in 2020, and the third is currently in training. The curriculum was created and implemented. The fellowship has been successfully integrated into the health system, and the fellows performed 199 and 235 cases, respectively, during the program, completing all rotations successfully. They have been appointed to the national health system. Both graduates are now docents in the program and in the public system. Additional staff including radiologists, radiology technicians, nurses, urology residents (both Dominican and American), urology attendings, operating room staff, and anesthesia residents were trained as a result of the program.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first fellowship of its kind in the Caribbean. A novel curriculum was created and implemented, and the first 2 fellows have successfully completed all rotations. This training model may be transferable to additional sites.

Timing of surgery following SARS‐CoV‐2 infection: an international prospective cohort study

Peri‐operative SARS‐CoV‐2 infection increases postoperative mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal duration of planned delay before surgery in patients who have had SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. This international, multicentre, prospective cohort study included patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery during October 2020. Surgical patients with pre‐operative SARS‐CoV‐2 infection were compared with those without previous SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. The primary outcome measure was 30‐day postoperative mortality. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted 30‐day mortality rates stratified by time from diagnosis of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection to surgery. Among 140,231 patients (116 countries), 3127 patients (2.2%) had a pre‐operative SARS‐CoV‐2 diagnosis. Adjusted 30‐day mortality in patients without SARS‐CoV‐2 infection was 1.5% (95%CI 1.4–1.5). In patients with a pre‐operative SARS‐CoV‐2 diagnosis, mortality was increased in patients having surgery within 0–2 weeks, 3–4 weeks and 5–6 weeks of the diagnosis (odds ratio (95%CI) 4.1 (3.3–4.8), 3.9 (2.6–5.1) and 3.6 (2.0–5.2), respectively). Surgery performed ≥ 7 weeks after SARS‐CoV‐2 diagnosis was associated with a similar mortality risk to baseline (odds ratio (95%CI) 1.5 (0.9–2.1)). After a ≥ 7 week delay in undertaking surgery following SARS‐CoV‐2 infection, patients with ongoing symptoms had a higher mortality than patients whose symptoms had resolved or who had been asymptomatic (6.0% (95%CI 3.2–8.7) vs. 2.4% (95%CI 1.4–3.4) vs. 1.3% (95%CI 0.6–2.0), respectively). Where possible, surgery should be delayed for at least 7 weeks following SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Patients with ongoing symptoms ≥ 7 weeks from diagnosis may benefit from further delay

Prostate Cancer Survival and Mortality according to a 13-year retrospective cohort study in Brazil: Competing-Risk Analysis

Objective: To analyze cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) among patients with prostate cancer that initiated treatment in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), between 2002 and 2010, in Brazil.

Methods: Retrospective observational study that used the National Oncological Database, which was developed by record-linkage techniques used to integrate data from SUS Information Systems, namely: Outpatient (SIA-SUS), Hospital (SIH-SUS), and Mortality (SIM-SUS). Cancer-specific and other-cause survival probabilities were estimated by the time elapsed between the date of the first treatment until the patients’ deaths or the end of the study, from 2002 until 2015. The Fine-Gray model for competing risk was used to estimate factors associated with patients’ risk of death.

Results: Of the 112,856 studied patients, the average age was 70.5 years, 21% died due to prostate cancer, and 25% due to other causes. Specific survival in 160 months was 75%, and other-cause survival was 67%. For CSM, the main factors associated with patients’ risk of death were: stage IV (AHR = 2.91; 95%CI 2.73 – 3.11), systemic treatment (AHR = 2.10; 95%CI 2.00 – 2.22), and combined surgery (AHR = 2.30, 95%CI 2.18 – 2.42). As for OCM, the main factors associated with patients’ risk of death were age and comorbidities.

Conclusion: The analyzed patients with prostate cancer were older and died mainly from other causes, probably due to the presence of comorbidities associated with the tumor.

Correlation of prostate volume with severity of lower urinary tract symptoms as measured by international prostate symptoms score and maximum urine flow rate among patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

Background
The aim of the study is to find the correlation between the prostate volume and severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as measured by international prostate symptoms score and maximum urine flow rate among patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Methods
The study was a prospective correlational study conducted between June 2016 and November 2017. A total of 290 patients who presented with LUTS suggestive of BPH and satisfied the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited. Clinical evaluation including digital rectal examination of the prostate was done. Symptoms severity was assessed using the self-administered international prostate symptoms score (IPSS) questionnaire. Prostate volume was determined by transrectal ultrasound scan, and the urine flow rate was measured using uroflowmeter. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0, and p value < 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant.

Results
The mean age of the patients was 64.22 ± 9.04 years with a range of 40 to 95 years. Most of the patients had moderate symptoms (55%) on IPSS with the mean IPSS value of 16.41 ± 7.43. The mean Qmax value was 16.55 ± 7.41 ml/s, and the median prostate volume (IQR) was 45.05 (35, 59). There was a positive significant correlation between prostate volume and IPSS (r = 0.179, p = 0.002) and a negative significant correlation between prostate volume and Qmax (r = − 0.176, p = 0.003).

Conclusion
This study showed a significant correlation between the prostate volume and IPSS, and also between prostate volume and maximum flow rate (Qmax).

Epidemiological trends in community acquired acute Kidney Injury in Pakistan: 25 years Experience from a Tertiary Care Renal Unit

Background: Epidemiological studies of community acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) are sparse especially from South Asia and none has published from Pakistan. Reported incidences from different countries vary with use of different criteria of defining AKI. There is also variation found in different class of income countries, hospital based versus community based AKI.

Methods: The current study was carried out in all adult AKI patients developing community acquired AKI and coming to a tertiary care renal institution from January 1990 to December 2014. This is a retrospective data collection from patient’s records and AKI was defined according to KDIGO guidelines. Trends among different groups which are classified in medical, obstetrical and surgical were observed and presented.

Results: In medical AKI there has been found a rise in toxic rhabdomyolysis, vivax malaria and dengue infection during later part of study. In obstetrical AKI observed continuous rise in numbers contributing to total AKI during these years. Surgical AKI included obstructed cases during initial ten years and only surgical trauma during later 15 years. Older age on presentation in medical AKI, and thrombocytopenia, deranged coagulation, deranged liver function, hyperkalemia, requirement of mechanical ventilation and multi organ failure in all groups remained predictors of higher mortality.

Conclusion: From Pakistan epidemiology for community acquired AKI has never been published on a large scale and this study would remain source of great information in this regard over coming years.

Organ Donation and Transplantation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and Challenges

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), occupying about 80% of the African continent is a heterogeneous region with estimated population of 1.1 billion people in 47 countries. Most belong to the low resource countries (LRCs). The high prevalence of end-organ diseases of kidney, liver, lung and heart makes provision of organ donation and transplantation necessary. Although kidney and heart transplantations were performed in South Africa in the 1960s, transplant activity in SSA lags behind the developed world. Peculiar challenges militating against successful development of transplant programmes include high cost of treatment, low GDP of most countries, inadequate infrastructural and institutional support, absence of subsidy, poor knowledge of the disease condition, poor accessibility to health-care facilities, religious and trado-cultural practices. Many people in the region patronize alternative healthcare as first choice. Opportunities that if harnessed may alter the unfavorable landscape are: implementation of the 2007 WHO Regional Consultation recommendations for establishment of national legal framework and self-sufficient organ donation/transplantation in each country and adoption of their 2020 proposed actions for organ/transplantation for member states, national registries with sharing of data with GODT, prevention of transplant commercialization and tourism. Additionally, adapting some aspects of proven successful models in LRCs will improve transplantation programmes in SSA.