Alliance for the development of the Argentinian Hip Fracture Registry

Summary
Age expectancy has significantly increased over the last 50 years, as well as some age-related health conditions such as hip fractures. The development of hip fracture registries has shown enhanced patient outcomes through quality improvement strategies. The development of the Argentinian Hip Fracture Registry is going in the same direction.

Introduction
Age expectancy has increased worldwide in the last 50 years, with the population over 64 growing from 4.9 to 9.1%. As fractures are an important problem in this age group, specific approaches such as hip fracture registries (HFR) are needed. Our aim is to communicate the Argentinian HFR (AHFR) development resulting from an alliance between Fundación Trauma, Fundación Navarro Viola, and the Argentinian Network of Hip Fracture in the elderly.

Methods
Between October 2020 and May 2021, an iterative consensus process involving 5 specialty-focused meetings and 8 general meetings with more than 20 specialists was conducted. This process comprised inclusion criteria definitions, dataset proposals, website deployment with data protection and user validation, the definition of hospital-adjusted registry levels, implementation planning, and sustainability strategies.

Results
By June 2021, we were able to (1) outline data fields, including epidemiological, clinical, and functional dimensions for the pre-admission, hospitalization, discharge, and follow-up stages; (2) define three levels: basic (53 fields), intermediate (85), and advanced (99); (3) identify 21 benchmarking indicators; and (4) make a correlation scheme among fracture classifications. Simultaneously, we launched a fundraising campaign to implement the AHFR in 30 centers, having completed 18.

Conclusion
AHFR development was based on four pillars: (1) representativeness and support, (2) solid definitions from onset, (3) committed teams, and (4) stable funding. This tool may contribute to the design of evidence-based health policies to improve patient outcomes, and we hope this experience will help other LMICs to develop their own tailored-to-their-needs registries.

Role of Primary Caregivers Regarding Unintentional Injury Prevention Among Preschool Children: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Low- and Middle-Income Country

Importance
Unintentional childhood injuries significantly strain healthcare resources, and their preventable measures can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.

Objectives
To investigate the role of primary caregivers in preventing unintentional injuries and to identify the groups that require special health intervention programs to reduce the burden of this public health concern.

Methodology
A cross-sectional survey was conducted at three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Parents of preschool children who visited pediatric clinics were invited to participate in the study by completing a self-administered questionnaire comprising questions about knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards preventing unintentional injuries among children.

Results
With an 80% response rate, the overall mean knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) score was 27.40 ± 3.48. Only 14.3% of the participants had a high KAP score, while 83.6% and 2.1% of the respondents had moderate and low KAP scores, respectively. People of lower socioeconomic status, unemployed, less educated, and families with more than one preschool child were less knowledgeable and non-adherent to unintentional preventive injury. It was found that 21% of the children had suffered from an unintentional severe injury in the past, and the internet was the most frequent source of gaining knowledge among parents.

Conclusion
Parental knowledge, attitude, practices, and adherence to child safety measures are sub-optimal in our cohort of studied participants. Raising awareness and providing the counseling are essential in reducing the burden of unintentional injuries.

Second- and Third-Tier Therapies for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Intracranial hypertension is a common finding in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. These patients need treatment in the intensive care unit, where intracranial pressure monitoring and, whenever possible, multimodal neuromonitoring can be applied. A three-tier approach is suggested in current recommendations, in which higher-tier therapies have more significant side effects. In this review, we explain the rationale for this approach, and analyze the benefits and risks of each therapeutic modality. Finally, we discuss, based on the most recent recommendations, how this approach can be adapted in low- and middle-income countries, where available resources are limited.

Decolonizing Global Surgery

By bringing health professionals across a variety of disciplines together, we are able to share strategies and create solutions for improving surgical care to these under-serviced regions. The Bethune Round Table 2022 took place virtually, June 16 – 19 and was hosted by BGSC,in co-operation with the Canadian Network for International Surgery. The theme for the BRT 2022 was “Decolonizing Global Surgery”.

The conference program consisted of 28 panelists and speakers and 98 abstracts (46 podium presentations and 52 posters) touching upon diverse aspects of global surgery including women in surgery, indigenous health, and sustainability in global partnerships. All sessions were recorded, including abstracts. All the abstracts presented are contained within this document.

The state of surgery, obstetrics, trauma, and anaesthesia care in Ghana: a narrative review

Background
Conditions amenable to surgical, obstetric, trauma, and anaesthesia (SOTA) care are a major contributor to death and disability in Ghana. SOTA care is an essential component of a well-functioning health system, and better understanding of the state of SOTA care in Ghana is necessary to design policies to address gaps in SOTA care delivery.

Objective
The aim of this study is to assess the current situation of SOTA care in Ghana.

Methods
A situation analysis was conducted as a narrative review of published scientific literature. Information was extracted from studies according to five health system domains related to SOTA care: service delivery, workforce, infrastructure, finance, and information management.

Results
Ghanaians face numerous barriers to accessing quality SOTA care, primarily due to health system inadequacies. Over 77% of surgical operations performed in Ghana are essential procedures, most of which are performed at district-level hospitals that do not have consistent access to imaging and operative room fundamentals. Tertiary facilities have consistent access to these modalities but lack consistent access to oxygen and/or oxygen concentrators on-site as well as surgical supplies and anaesthetic medicines. Ghanaian patients cover up to 91% of direct SOTA costs out-of-pocket, while health insurance only covers up to 14% of the costs. The Ghanaian surgical system also faces severe workforce inadequacies especially in district-level facilities. Most specialty surgeons are concentrated in urban areas. Ghana’s health system lacks a solid information management foundation as it does not have centralized SOTA databases, leading to incomplete, poorly coded, and illegible patient information.

Conclusion
This review establishes that surgical services provided in Ghana are focused primarily on district-level facilities that lack adequate infrastructure and face workforce shortages, among other challenges. A comprehensive scale-up of Ghana’s surgical infrastructure, workforce, national insurance plan, and information systems is warranted to improve Ghana’s surgical system.

Prevalence and Severity of Burn Scars in Rural Mozambique

Background
Burn injuries are common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and their associated disability is tragic. This study is the first to explore burn scars in rural communities in Mozambique. This work also validated an innovate burn assessment tool, the Morphological African Scar Contractures Classification (MASCC), used to determine surgical need.

Methods
Using a stratified, population-weighted survey, the team interviewed randomly selected households from September 2012 to June 2013. Three rural districts (Chókwè, Nhamatanda, and Ribáuè) were selected to represent the southern, central and northern regions of the country. Injuries were recorded, documented with photographs, and approach to care was gathered. A panel of residents and surgeons reviewed the burn scar images using both the Vancouver Scar Scale and the MASCC, a validated visual scale that categorizes patients into four categories corresponding to levels of surgical intervention.

Results
Of the 6104 survey participants, 6% (n = 370) reported one or more burn injuries. Burn injuries were more common in females (57%) and most often occurred on the extremities. Individuals less than 25 years old had a significantly higher odds of reporting a burn scar compared to people older than 45 years. Based on the MASCC, 12% (n = 42) would benefit from surgery to treat contractures.

Conclusion
Untreated burn injuries are prevalent in rural Mozambique. Our study reveals a lack of access to surgical care in rural communities and demonstrates how the MASCC scale can be used to extend the reach of surgical assessment beyond the hospital through community health workers.

Open tibial shaft fracture management in Argentina: an evaluation of treatment standards in diverse resource settings

Background:
Argentina is a country with varying access to orthopedic surgical care. The Argentine Association of Trauma and Orthopedics (AATO) “Interior Committee” was developed to address potential regional differences and promote standardization of orthopedic trauma care. The paper assesses the level of national standardization of the management of open tibia fractures across 9 provinces in Argentina.

Methods:
Utilizing a matched-comparison group design, management of these injuries were assessed and compared between 3 groups: an “AATO Exterior Committee” consisting of surgeons that practice in Buenos Aires, and 2 “Interior Committees,” comprising surgeons that practice in outlying provinces, 1 of which is affiliated with the AATO, and 1 that is not affiliated with the AATO. The study was conducted in 2 phases: phase 1 assessed open tibia fracture management characteristics, and phase 2 evaluated the management of soft-tissue wound coverage following open fractures.

Results:
Soft-tissue coverage procedures for Gustilo Anderson Type IIIB fractures were more commonly performed by orthopedic surgeons in Interior Committees than the AATO Exterior Committee. Greater rates of definitive wound coverage within 7 days post-injury were reported in both Interior Committees compared to the Exterior Committee. Plastic surgeons were reported as more available to those in the AATO Exterior Committee group than in the AATO Interior Committees.

Conclusion:
While treatment patterns were evident among groups, differences were identified in the management and timing of soft-tissue coverage in Gustilo Anderson Type IIIB fractures between the Exterior Committee and both Interior Committees. Future targeted educational and surgical hands-on training opportunities that emphasize challenges faced in resource-limited settings may improve the management of open tibia fractures in Argentina.

Facilitators and barriers impacting in-hospital Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) implementation: A scoping review on the implementation of TQIPs across income levels

Background
Trauma describes physical injury along with the bodies associate reponse, and is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally, with low and middle income countries (LMICs) disproportionately affected. Understanding the implementation of in-hospital Trauma Quality Improvement Programs (TQIPs) and the factors determining success is critical to reduce the global trauma burden. The purpose of the review was to identify key facilitators and barriers to TQIP implementation across income levels by evaluating the range of literature on the topic.

Methods
We used information sources PubMed, Web of Science, and Global Index Medicus. The eligibility criteria was English language studies, of any design, published from June 2009 – January 2022. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist extension for scoping reviews were used to carry out a three-stage screening process. Content analysis using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) identified facilitator and barrier themes for in-hospital TQIP implementation.

Results
Twenty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria from 3923 studies. The main facilitators and barriers identified were the need to prioritise staff education and training, strengthen dialogue with stakeholders, and provide standardised best-practice guidelines. Data quality improvements were more apparent in LMICs while high-income countries (HICs) emphasised increased communication training.

Conclusions
Stakeholder prioritisation of in-hospital TQIPs, along with increased knowledge and consensus on trauma care best practice will further advance efforts to lower the global trauma burden. The focus of future in-hospital TQIPs in LMICs should primarily be concerned with improving data quality of registries, while interventions in HICs should focus on communication skills of healthcare professionals.

International Perspectives of Prehospital and Hospital Trauma Services: A Literature Review

Background: Evidence suggests that reductions in the incidence in trauma observed in some countries are related to interventions including legislation around road and vehicle safety measures, public behaviour change campaigns, and changes in trauma response systems. This study aims to briefly review recent refereed and grey literature about prehospital and hospital trauma care services in different regions around the world and describe similarities and differences in identified systems to demonstrate the diversity of characteristics present. Methods: Articles published between 2000 and 2020 were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE. Since detailed comparable information was lacking in the published literature, prehospital emergency service providers’ annual performance reports from selected example countries or regions were reviewed to obtain additional information about the performance of prehospital care. Results: The review retained 34 studies from refereed literature related to trauma systems in different regions. In the U.S. and Canada, the trauma care facilities consisted of five different levels of trauma centres ranging from Level I to Level IV and Level I to Level V, respectively. Hospital care and organisation in Japan is different from the U.S. model, with no dedicated trauma centres; however, patients with severe injury are transported to university hospitals’ emergency departments. Other similarities and differences in regional examples were observed. Conclusions: The refereed literature was dominated by research from developed countries such as Australia, Canada, and the U.S., which all have organised trauma systems. Many European countries have implemented trauma systems between the 1990s and 2000s; however, some countries, such as France and Greece, are still forming an integrated system. This review aims to encourage countries with immature trauma systems to consider the similarities and differences in approaches of other countries to implementing a trauma system. View Full-Text

Burn Admissions Across Low- and Middle-income Countries: A Repeated Cross-sectional Survey

Burn injuries have decreased markedly in high-income countries while the incidence of burns remains high in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) where more than 90% of burns are thought to occur. However, the cause of burns in LMIC is poorly documented. The aim was to document the causes of severe burns and the changes over time. A cross-sectional survey was completed for 2014 and 2019 in eight burn centers across Africa, Asia, and Latin America: Cairo, Nairobi, Ibadan, Johannesburg, Dhaka, Kathmandu, Sao Paulo, and Guadalajara. The information summarised included demographics of burn patients, location, cause, and outcomes of burns. In total, 15,344 patients were admitted across all centers, 37% of burns were women and 36% of burns were children. Burns occurred mostly in household settings (43–79%). In Dhaka and Kathmandu, occupational burns were also common (32 and 43%, respectively). Hot liquid and flame burns were most common while electric burns were also common in Dhaka and Sao Paulo. The type of flame burns varies by center and year, in Dhaka, 77% resulted from solid fuel in 2014 while 74% of burns resulted from Liquefied Petroleum Gas in 2019. In Nairobi, a large proportion (32%) of burns were intentional self-harm or assault. The average length of stay in hospitals decreased from 2014 to 2019. The percentage of deaths ranged from 5% to 24%. Our data provide important information on the causes of severe burns which can provide guidance in how to approach the development of burn injury prevention programs in LMIC.