The Concept and Current State of Neurosurgery in Southeast Europe

The term “Southeast Europe” was introduced by Austrian researcher Johann Georg von Hahn in the 19th century as a broader term than the traditional “Balkans,” designating the region settled by several different nations, mostly alike, but also richly diverse. The most appropriate definition describes the inhabitants as the people geographically, demographically, and culture related to Southeast Europe (1).

Contemporary neurosurgery in the Southeast Europe region has recently witnessed remarkable progress, guided by the “Think globally, act locally” concept as an essential driving force. This slogan has long been in use in environmental contexts and has been gaining increased significance in various disciplines over the past decades. In international education, this slogan was first introduced in 1950 and popularized by Stuart Grauer in 1989 (2). Neurosurgeons in Southeast Europe genuinely implement the concept of thinking globally and acting locally, working together to expand the horizons to the benefit of our patients and our well-being and recognition in the modern world. This mini-review aims to highlight the development and progress of the Southeast Europe neurosurgical society (SeENS) as a regional neurosurgical society dedicated to neurosurgical education, research, capacity building, and exchanging experiences within the Southeast region of Europe.

Incidence of Keratoconus in Refractive Surgery Population of Vojvodina – Single Center Study

Introduction
Keratoconus (KCN) is known to affect all ethnicities but its incidence exhibits geographical variability plausibly due to subclinical forms of the disease, differences in diagnostic methods and criteria, or differences in genetic variations in populations.
Aim
To examine the prevalence of keratoconus among the refractive surgery population of Vojvodina, who underwent refractive surgery screening at Eye Clinic Svjetlost Novi Sad, Serbia from September 2018 to September 2019. This is a single-center study.
Methods
Retrospective analysis of 876 patients who presented for refractive surgery evaluation. Corneal tomographers represent the gold standard in the detection and classification of corneal ectatic diseases and screening is an essential part of the preoperative diagnostics before any refractive surgery. The corneal tomographer used in this study was a Scheimpflug imaging device (Pentacam AXL, Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). The device was realigned before each measurement.
Results
Out of a total number of patients, 619 (70,7%) were candidates for corneal refractive surgery procedure, and 257 patients (29.3%) were not. Out of 257 patients that were not candidates for the procedure 157 (61,0%) patients had thin corneas, high myopia/hypermetropia or had some retinal disease; 75 patients (29,1) were keratoconus suspect and 25 patients (9,7%) had keratoconus. KCN patients had a mean age of 29.5 ± 7.7 years, 18 patients (72.0%) were male and 7 patients were female (28%)
Conclusion
The most cited annual incidence of KCN is 2 approximately 1 per 2,000. Recent data from the biggest Netherland study revealed many different epidemiological results which deprive keratoconus of the community of rare diseases. The incidence of keratoconus in Vojvodina refractive surgery population presented in our Clinic was 2.9%