Popliteal fossa reconstruction with medial genicular artery flap in a low resource setting: A report of two cases

Background: Popliteal fossa defects are common arising from several causes. Options of reconstruction around the knee could be limited by the cause of defect or interventions. Medial genicular artery flap is known in the books but not in popular use despite its obvious advantages of superior vascularity, adequate size, suppleness, and hidden donor site.

Aim: To promote the use of this flap due to its advantages and ease of use especially in resource poor settings.

Patients and methods: We report two patients from a low resource setting aged 23 and 20 years respectively. The first case was managed for avulsion wound of the popliteal fossa while the second had post burn knee contracture release. The resultant large popliteal fossa defects on both patients were seen on clinical examination. Both patients were offered popliteal fossa reconstruction for the popliteal fossa defects using medial genicular artery flap with good outcome.

Conclusion: The medial genicular artery flap is a veritable option of popliteal fossa reconstruction especially for defects that are located contiguous to the flap and when other regional flap options are not available. Flap survival is excellent and donor site is hidden

The Preferred Management of a Single-Digit Distal Phalanx Amputation

Background: Replantation of a single digit at the distal phalanx level is not routinely performed since it is technically challenging with questionable cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to analyze international microsurgeons’ clinical decisions when faced with this common scenario.

Methods: A survey of a right-middle finger distal phalanx transverse complete amputation case was conducted via online and paper questionnaires. Microsurgeons around the world were invited to provide their treatment recommendations. In total, 383 microsurgeons replied, and their responses were stratified and analyzed by geographical areas, specialties, microsurgery fellowship training, and clinical experiences.

Results: Among 383 microsurgeons, 170 (44.3%) chose replantation as their preferred management option, 137 (35.8%) chose revision amputation, 62 (16.2%) chose local flap coverage, 8 (2.1%) chose composite graft, and 6 (1.6%) favored other choices as their reconstruction method for the case study. Microsurgeons from the Asia-Pacific, Middle East/South Asia, and Central/South America regions tend to perform replantation (70.7, 68.8, and 67.4%, respectively) whereas surgeons from North America and Europe showed a lower preference toward replantation (20.5 and 26.8%, respectively p < 0.001). Having completed a microsurgery fellowship increased the attempt rate of replantation by 15.3% (p = 0.004). Clinical experience and the surgeons' specialties did not show statistical significance in clinical decision making. Conclusion: From the present study, the geographic preferences and microsurgery fellowship experience influence the method of reconstruction for distal phalanx amputation. Multiple factors are taken into consideration in selecting the most suitable reconstructive method for each case scenario. In addition to the technical challenges of the proposed surgery, the cost of the procedure and the type of facility needed are important variables in the decision making process.

Use of Social Media to Teach Global Reconstructive Surgery: Initiation of a Secret Facebook Group

Background:
The ReSurge Global Training Program (RGTP) is a model for building reconstructive surgery capacity in low- and middle-income countries.1 The aim of this study is to assess attitudes toward social media, to develop an initial RGTP Facebook Education Group, and to assess the early results of the group’s implementation.

Methods:
A survey of the RGTP community assessed group demographic, interests, concerns, and familiarity with Facebook from July to August of 2018. A “secret” Facebook group was launched on October 30, 2018. Narrated lectures were posted weekly to the group. Educational cases were shared on the group’s discussion page. Facebook “Group Insights” and individual post review were used to obtain group statistics.

Results:
Senior faculty were less likely to have an existing Facebook account (58% vs 93%, P < 0.05). Trainees were more confident using Facebook (97% vs 54%, P < 0.05) and favored viewing the training curriculum through Facebook (93.0%, P < 0.05). At 6 months, the group enrolled 103 members from 14 countries. Twenty-two lectures were posted, obtaining an average of 59.4 views (range, 36–78). Fourteen cases were presented for group discussion with an average of 61.1 views (range, 43–87).

Conclusions:
The RGTP Facebook group has continued to expand in its early months. This group allows our community to view RGTP’s training curriculum, while providing global access to expert opinion and collaboration. The secret Facebook group can be used as an effective and easy-to-use platform for educational outreach in global reconstructive surgery.

Managing the soft tissue defects over the dorsum of hand: Our experience with Posterior Interosseous Artery (PIA) flap

Objective: To determine the outcome of posterior interosseous artery (PIA) flap in terms of coverage of the defects and survival of the flap in patients with complex defects over the dorsum of hand and distal forearm.

Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Hand and Upper Limb Surgery (HULS) CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan from 15th July 2017 to 15th August 2019.All patients with complex defects of the dorsum of the hand and distal forearm were treated with posterior interosseous artery (PIA) flap. Post operatively the grafts were observed for coverage of the defects and graft survival.

Results: The total number of patients were 24 with 19(79.1%) males and 05(20.8%) females. The mean age was 37±7SD(range 21 to 56 years). Right hand was involved in 17(70.8%) patients and left in 7(29.1%) patients. Complete coverage of the defects were achieved in all cases. Successful graft survival and uptake was seen in 20(83.3%) flaps. Partial loss was seen in 03 (12.5%) flaps which required debridement and subsequent Split Thickness Skin Grafting. Complete graft loss was seen in 01 (4.1%) flap

Conclusion: Posterior interosseous artery flap (PIA) had higher survival rates and larger area of the dorsum of the hand and distal forearm were entirely covered with this graft. We recommend posterior interosseous artery flap as first line surgical technique to treat complex tissue defects of the dorsum of the hand and distal forearm

Changes in Electrical Activity of the Masseter Muscle and Masticatory Force After the Use of the Masseter Nerve as Donor in Facial Reanimation Surgery

Introduction
The masseter nerve has been used as a donor nerve for facial reanimation procedures due to the multiple advantages it offers; it has been generally considered that sacrifice of the masseter nerve does not alter the masticatory apparatus; however, there are no objective studies to support this claim.
Objective
To evaluate the impact that the use of the masseter nerve in dynamic facial reconstruction has on the electrical activity of the masseter muscle and on bite force.
Materials and Methods
An observational and prospective longitudinal study was performed measuring bite force and electrical activity of the masseter muscles before and 3 months after dynamic facial reconstructive surgery using the masseter nerve. An occlusal analyzer and surface electromyography were employed for measurements.
Results
The study included 15 patients with unilateral facial paralysis, with a mean age of 24.06 ± 23.43. Seven patients were subjected to a masseter-buccal branch nerve transfer, whereas in eight patients, the masseter nerve was used as a donor nerve for gracilis free functional muscle transfer. Electrical activity of the masseter muscle was significantly reduced after surgery in both occlusal positions: from 140.86 ± 65.94 to 109.68 ± 68.04 ( p = 0.01) in maximum intercuspation and from 123.68 ± 75.64 to 82.64 ± 66.56 ( p = 0.01) in the rest position. However, bite force did not show any reduction, changing from 22.07 ± 15.66 to 15.56 ± 7.91 ( p = 0.1) after the procedure
Conclusion
Masseter nerve transfer causes a reduction in electromyographic signals of the masseter muscle; however, bite force is preserved and comparable to preoperative status.

Is Quality of Life After Mastectomy Comparable to That After Breast Conservation Surgery? A 5-year Follow Up Study From Mumbai, India

Purpose
Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women worldwide. Surgery is a central part of the treatment. Modified radical mastectomy (MRM) is often replaced by breast conserving therapy (BCT) in high-income countries. MRM is still the standard choice, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as radiotherapy, a mandatory component of BCT is not widely available. It is important to understand whether quality of life (QOL) after MRM is comparable to that after BCT. This has not been studied well in LMICs. We present, 5-year follow-up of QOL scores in breast cancer patients from India.

Methods
We interviewed women undergoing breast cancer surgery preoperatively, at 6 months after surgery, and at 1 year and 5 years, postoperatively. QOL scores were evaluated using FACT B questionnaire. Average QOL scores of women undergoing BCT were compared with those undergoing MRM. Total scores, domain scores and trends of scores over time were analyzed.

Results
We interviewed 54 women with a mean age of 53 years (SD 9 ± years). QOL scores in all the women, dipped during the treatment period, in all subscales but improved thereafter and even surpassed the baseline in physical, emotional and breast-specific domains (p < 0.05) at 5 years. At the end of 5 years, there was no statistically significant difference between the MRM and BCT groups in any of the total or domain scores.

Conclusion
QOL scores in Indian women did not differ significantly between MRM and BCT in the long term. Both options are acceptable in the study setting.

Reliability and versatility of the Wise pattern, medial pedicle for breast reduction in South Africa

Background
Breast hypertrophy is a condition of abnormal enlargement of the breast which may continue until each breast weighs more than 1.5 kg (macromastia) or even more than 2 kg (gigantomastia). Supporting such heavy weights leads to cervical and upper thoracic back pain, costochondritis, and fungal infections in the mammary folds, making reduction mammoplasty essential. However, there is a lack of consensus among plastic surgeons as to the best technique. This study reports the results of reduction mammoplasties in South African women using the Wise pattern, minimally undermined with a medial pedicle.

Methods
A retrospective record review of the reduction mammoplasties was conducted over a 1-year period. Patient records were assessed for early complications related to vascular reliability.

Results
One hundred and fourteen Wise pattern minimally undermined, medial pedicle techniques were performed on 57 consecutive patients in the 1-year period at the NetCare Rand Clinic in Berea, Johannesburg, South Africa (EN). The patients’ sternal notch to nipple distances ranged from 28 to 52 cm. The volume of breast reduction ranged from 345 g to 3300 g per breast. The overall complication rate was 9.7%, consisting of fat necrosis (3.5%), infection (1.7%), dehiscence (3.5%), and nipple epidermolysis (0.9%).

Conclusion
The minimally undermined Wise pattern medial pedicle breast reduction technique proved to be a reliable technique for breast reduction in the South African population. Safety in pedicle breast reduction with sternal notch to nipple distances of up to 50 cm, as well as reliability and versatility in a wide range of breast sizes, was demonstrated.

Global Burden of Craniofacial Disorders Where Should Volunteering Plastic Surgeons and Governments Focus Their Care?

Purpose:
Approximately 11% of the global burden of disease is surgically treatable. When located within the head, face, and neck region, plastic surgeons are particularly trained to treat these conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe the etiology, disability, and barriers to receiving care for diseases of the head, face, mouth, and neck region across 4 low-and-middle-income countries.

Methods:
The Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need (SOSAS) instrument is a cluster randomized, cross-sectional, national survey administered in Nepal, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Uganda from 2011 to 2014. The survey identifies demographic characteristics, etiology, disease timing, proportion seeking/receiving care, barriers to care, and disability.

Results:
Across the 4 countries, 1413 diseases of head, face, mouth, and neck region were identified. Masses (22.13%) and trauma (32.8%) were the most common etiology. Nepal reported the largest proportion of masses (40.22%) and Rwanda reported the largest amount of trauma (52.65%) (P < 0.001). Rwanda had the highest proportion of individuals seeking (89.6%) and receiving care (83.63%) while Sierra Leone reported the fewest (60% versus 47.77%, P < 0.001). In our multi-variate analysis literacy and chronic conditions were predictors for receiving care while diseases causing the greatest disability predicted not receiving care (ORa .58 and .48 versus 1.31 P < 0.001).

Conclusions:
The global volunteering plastic surgeon should be prepared to treat chronic craniofacial conditions. Furthermore, governments should address structural barriers, such as health illiteracy and lack of access to local plastic surgery care by supporting local training efforts.

The Utility of an Open-Access Surgical Simulator to Enhance Surgeon Training

Background: Smile Train, an international children’s charity committed to improving cleft care around the world, empowers local medical professionals in developing countries to provide quality comprehensive cleft care in their own communities. As part of their sustainable model, Smile Train developed a web-based, interactive virtual simulator to improve surgical training of cleft procedures for surgeons around the world, replicating the anatomical and technical steps involved in cleft surgery. This study evaluated the simulator as a tool for enhancing surgical training.

Methods: A pre-test and questionnaire addressing cleft care, surgical knowledge, and confidence level was administered to surgeons-in-training at an academic institution. Participants completed 3 simulator modules followed by a post-test and questionnaire to measure changes in knowledge and confidence levels.

Results: Sixteen surgeons-in-training participated in this study. The mean score on the knowledge examination increased after reviewing the modules for both junior residents (33.1%-64.4%) and senior residents (46.9%-70.8%). Reviewing the modules increased participants’ confidence in the knowledge of cleft anatomy, understanding of surgical procedures, and ability to follow along meaningfully while assisting in operations.

Conclusions: The Smile Train Virtual Surgery Simulator increased knowledge and reported surgeon confidence in understanding and assisting in cleft lip surgery, signifying its usefulness as a training tool for surgeons-in-training. Virtual simulation is a valuable resource for improving understanding and competence of the craniofacial surgeon while serving as an educational resource to other members of the comprehensive cleft care team, patients, and families.

Double-island anterolateral thigh free flap used in reconstruction for salvage surgery for locally recurrent head and neck carcinoma

Salvage surgery is usually the only treatment for recurrent head and neck tumors but often poses a challenge to surgeons due to post-resected defects at 2 or more sites. Here we present the outcomes and rationale for reconstruction by a double-island anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap following the salvage surgery.Patients treated with double-island ALT free flaps in salvage surgery between September 2012 and January 2017 at West China Hospital, Sichuan University were retrospectively viewed.A total of 18 patients (15 males) underwent reconstruction with double-island ALT free flaps (range from 40 to 77 years old). All patients had recurrent tumors after surgery and/or chemoradiotherapy and were selected for salvage surgery by a multidisciplinary team. The flaps were initially harvested as 7 cm × 7 cm to 16 cm × 10 cm single blocks and then divided into double-island flaps with each individual paddle ranging from5 cm × 3 cm to 10 cm × 8 cm. The average flap thickness was 3.5 cm (range from 2 to 6 cm), and the average pedicle length was 8 cm (range from 6 to 10 cm). A total of 18 arteries and 32 veins were anastomosed. Three patients developed fistula, 1 developed flap failure due to thrombosis and was re-operated with a pedicle flap. One patient died of pulmonary infection 6 months after the operation.Flap reconstruction for complex head and neck defects after salvage surgery remains challenging, but double-island ALT free flap reconstruction conducted by a multidisciplinary team and experienced surgeons would have a role in this setting