Surgical and Trauma Capacity Assessment in Rural Haryana, India

Abstract
Background: Trauma is a major global health problem and majority of the deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), at even higher rates in the rural areas. The three-delay model assesses three different delays in accessing healthcare and can be applied to improve surgical and trauma healthcare delivery. Prior to implementing change, the capacities of the rural India healthcare system need to be identified.

Objective: The object of this study was to estimate surgical and trauma care capacities of government health facilities in rural Nanakpur, Haryana, India using the Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment and Supplies (PIPES) and International Assessment of Capacity for Trauma (INTACT) tools.

Methods: The PIPES and INTACT tools were administered at eight government health facilities serving the population of Nanakpur in June 2015. Data analysis was performed per tool subsection, and an overall score was calculated. Higher PIPES or INTACT indices correspond to greater surgical or trauma care capacity, respectively.

Findings: Surgical and trauma care capacities increased with higher levels of care. The median PIPES score was significantly higher for tertiary facilities than primary and secondary facilities [13.8 (IQR 9.5, 18.2) vs. 4.7 (IQR 3.9, 6.2), p = 0.03]. The lower-level facilities were mainly lacking in personnel and procedures.

Conclusions: Surgical and trauma care capacities at healthcare facilities in Haryana, India demonstrate a shortage of surgical resources at lower-level centers. Specifically, the Primary Health Centers were not operating at full capacity. These results can inform resource allocation, including increasing education, across different facility levels in rural India.

Associations of On-arrival Vital Signs with 24-hour In-hospital Mortality in Adult Trauma Patients Admitted to Four Public University Hospitals in Urban India: A Prospective Multi-Centre Cohort Study

Abstract
Introduction: In India, more than a million people die annually due to injuries. Identifying the patients at risk of early mortality (within 24 hour of hospital arrival) is essential for triage. A bilateral Government Australia-India Trauma System Collaboration generated a trauma registry in the context of India, which yielded a cohort of trauma patients for systematic observation and interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the independent association of on-arrival vital signs and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) with 24-hour mortality among adult trauma patients admitted at four university public hospitals in urban India.

Methods: We performed an analysis of a prospective multicentre observational study of trauma patients across four urban public university hospitals in India, between April 2016 and February 2018. The primary outcome was 24-hour in-hospital mortality. We used logistic regression to determine mutually independent associations of the vital signs and GCS with 24-hour mortality.

Results: A total of 7497 adult patients (18 years and above) were included. The 24-hour mortality was 1.9%. In univariable logistic regression, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and the vital signs systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) had statistically significant associations with 24-hour mortality. These relationships held in multivariable analysis with hypotension (SBP100bpm) and bradycardia (HR<60bpm), hypoxia (SpO220brpm) and severe (3-8) and moderate (9-12) GCS having strong association with 24-hour mortality. Notably, the patients with missing values for SBP, HR and RR also demonstrated higher odds of 24-hour mortality. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) did not corelate with 24-hour mortality.

Conclusion: The routinely measured GCS and vital signs including SBP, HR, SpO2 and RR are independently associated with 24-hour in-hospital mortality in the context of university hospitals of urban India. These easily measured parameters in the emergency setting may help improve decision-making and guide further management in the trauma victims. A poor short-term prognosis was also observed in patients in whom these physiological variables were not recorded.

Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer (PABC): Report from a gestational cancer registry from a tertiary cancer care centre, India

Background
Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is a rare entity and defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or one-year post-partum. There is sparse data especially from low and middle-income countries (LMIC) and merits exploration.

Methods
The study (2013 -2020) evaluated demographics, treatment patterns and outcomes of PABC.

Results
There were 104 patients, median age of 31 years; 43 (41%) had triple-negative disease, 31(29.8%) had hormone-receptor (HR) positive and HER2 negative, 14 (13.5%) had HER2-positive and HR negative and 16(15.4%) had triple positive disease. 101(97%) had IDC grade III tumors and 74% had delayed diagnosis. 72% presented with early stage (24, EBC) or locally advanced breast cancer (53, LABC) and received either neoadjuvant (n=49) or adjuvant (n=26) chemotherapy and surgery. Trastuzumab, tamoxifen, and radiotherapy were administered post-delivery. At a median follow up of 27 (IQR:19-35) months, the estimated 3-year event-free survival (EFS) for EBC and LABC was 82% (95% CI: 65.2 – 100) and 56% (95% CI: 42 – 75.6%) and for metastatic 24% (95% CI: 10.1% – 58.5%) respectively.

Of the 104 patients, 34 were diagnosed antepartum (AP) and 15 had termination, 2 had preterm and 16 had full-term deliveries(FTDs). Among postpartum cohort (n=70), 2 had termination, 1 had preterm, 67 had FTDs. 83(including 17 from AP) children from both cohorts were experiencing normal milestones.

Conclusion
Data from the first Indian PABC registry showed that the majority had delayed diagnosis and aggressive features(TNBC, higher grade). Treatment was feasible in majority and stage matched outcomes were comparable to non-PABCs.

Surgical and Trauma Capacity Assessment in Rural Haryana, India

Background: Trauma is a major global health problem and majority of the deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), at even higher rates in the rural areas. The three-delay model assesses three different delays in accessing healthcare and can be applied to improve surgical and trauma healthcare delivery. Prior to implementing change, the capacities of the rural India healthcare system need to be identified.

Objective: The object of this study was to estimate surgical and trauma care capacities of government health facilities in rural Nanakpur, Haryana, India using the Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment and Supplies (PIPES) and International Assessment of Capacity for Trauma (INTACT) tools.

Methods: The PIPES and INTACT tools were administered at eight government health facilities serving the population of Nanakpur in June 2015. Data analysis was performed per tool subsection, and an overall score was calculated. Higher PIPES or INTACT indices correspond to greater surgical or trauma care capacity, respectively.

Findings: Surgical and trauma care capacities increased with higher levels of care. The median PIPES score was significantly higher for tertiary facilities than primary and secondary facilities [13.8 (IQR 9.5, 18.2) vs. 4.7 (IQR 3.9, 6.2), p = 0.03]. The lower-level facilities were mainly lacking in personnel and procedures.

Conclusions: Surgical and trauma care capacities at healthcare facilities in Haryana, India demonstrate a shortage of surgical resources at lower-level centers. Specifically, the Primary Health Centers were not operating at full capacity. These results can inform resource allocation, including increasing education, across different facility levels in rural India.

Trends and patterns of antibiotic prescribing at orthopedic inpatient departments of two private-sector hospitals in Central India: A 10-year observational study

Background
Frequent antibiotic prescribing in departments with high infection risk like orthopedics prominently contributes to the global increase of antibiotic resistance. However, few studies present antibiotic prescribing patterns and trends among orthopedic inpatients.

Aim
To compare and present the patterns and trends of antibiotic prescription over 10 years for orthopedic inpatients in a teaching (TH) and a non-teaching hospital (NTH) in Central India.

Methods
Data from orthopedic inpatients (TH-6446; NTH-4397) were collected using a prospective cross-sectional study design. Patterns were compared based on the indications and corresponding antibiotic treatments, mean Defined Daily Doses (DDD)/1000 patient-days, adherence to the National List of Essential Medicines India (NLEMI) and the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines (WHOMLEM). Antibiotic prescriptions were analyzed separately for the operated and the non-operated inpatients. Linear regression was used to analyze the time trends of antibiotic prescribing; in total through DDD/1000 patient-days and by antibiotic groups.

Results
Third generation cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotic class (TH-39%; NTH-65%) and fractures were the most common indications (TH-48%; NTH-48%). Majority of the operated inpatients (TH-99%; NTH-97%) were prescribed pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics. The non-operated inpatients were also prescribed antibiotics (TH-40%; NTH-75%), although few of them had infectious diagnoses (TH-8%; NTH-14%). Adherence to the NLEMI was lower (TH-31%; NTH-34%) than adherence to the WHOMLEM (TH-65%; NTH-62%) in both hospitals. Mean DDD/1000 patient-days was 16 times higher in the TH (2658) compared to the NTH (162). Total antibiotic prescribing increased over 10 years (TH-β = 3.23; NTH-β = 1.02).

Conclusion
Substantial number of inpatients were prescribed antibiotics without clear infectious indications. Adherence to the NLEMI and the WHOMLEM was low in both hospitals. Antibiotic use increased in both hospitals over 10 years and was higher in the TH than in the NTH. The need for developing and implementing local antibiotic prescribing guidelines is emphasized.

Cost of hospital care of women with postpartum haemorrhage in India, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda: a financial case for improved prevention

Objective
Access to quality, effective lifesaving uterotonics in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains a major barrier to reducing maternal deaths from postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to assess the costs of care for women who receive different preventative uterotonics, and with PPH and no-PPH so that the differences, if significant, can inform better resource allocation for maternal health care.

Methods
The costs of direct hospital care of women who received oxytocin or heat-stable carbetocin for prevention of PPH in selected tertiary care facilities in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda were assessed. We collected data from all women who had PPH, as well as a random sample of women without PPH. Cost data was collected for the cost of stay, PPH interventions, transfusions and medications for 2966 women. We analyzed the difference in cost of care at a facility level between women who experienced a PPH event and those who did not.

Key findings

The mean cost of care of a woman experiencing PPH in the study sites in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda exceeded the cost of care of a woman who did not experience PPH by between 21% and 309%. There was a large variation in cost across hospitals within a country and across countries.

Conclusion
Our results quantify the increased cost of PPH of up to 4.1 times that for a birth without PPH. PPH cost information can help countries to evaluate options across different conditions and in the formulation of appropriate guidelines for intrapartum care, including rational selection of quality-assured, effective medicines. This information can be applied to national assessment and adaptation of international recommendations such as the World Health Organization’s recommendations on uterotonics for the prevention of PPH or other interventions used to treat PPH.

Estimation of the National Surgical Needs in India by Enumerating the Surgical Procedures in an Urban Community Under Universal Health Coverage

Background
11% of the global burden of disease requires surgical care or anaesthesia management or both. Some studies have estimated this burden to be as high as 30%. The Lancet Commission for Global Surgery (LCoGS) estimated that 5000 surgeries are required to meet the surgical burden of disease for 100,000 people in LMICs. Studies from LMICs, estimating surgical burden based on enumeration of surgeries, are sparse.

Method
We performed this study in an urban population availing employees’ heath scheme in Mumbai, India. Surgical procedures performed in 2017 and 2018, under this free and equitable health scheme, were enumerated. We estimated the surgical needs for national population, based on age and sex distribution of surgeries and age standardization from our cohort.

Result
A total of 4642 surgeries were performed per year for a population of 88,273. Cataract (22.8%), Caesareans (3.8%), surgeries for fractures (3.27%) and hernia (2.86%) were the commonest surgeries. 44.2% of surgeries belonged to the essential surgeries. We estimated 3646 surgeries would be required per 100,000 Indian population per year. One-third of these surgeries would be needed for the age group 30–49 years, in the Indian population.

Conclusion
A total of 3646 surgeries were estimated annually to meet the surgical needs of Indian population as compared to the global estimate of 5000 surgeries per 100,000 people. Caesarean section, cataract, surgeries for fractures and hernia are the major contributors to the surgical needs. More enumeration-based studies are needed for better estimates from rural as well as other urban areas.

Return to work in survivors of primary brain Tumours treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy

Mini
Primary Brain Tumour survivors usually have significant morbidity, especially cognitive and neurological dysfunction. Return to pre-diagnosis work can be an important QoL indicator and outcomes measure in these patients. We did a retrospective study to assess return to work amongst the patients who underwent radiotherapy at our centre.

Background
Primary brain tumour (PBT) survivors have a high burden of morbidity. Return to work (RTW) is an important survivorship parameter and outcomes measure in these patients, especially in developing countries. This study was done to assess RTW after radiotherapy, reasons for no RTW, and relationship of RTW with treatment and patient factors.

Patients and Methods
A single centre study was done amongst PBT patients. Baseline and treatment details, education, employment was assessed. RTW assessed as: time to RTW, full/ part-time, reasons for no RTW and RTW at 6 months post-therapy, and last follow up.

Results
67 PBT patients with a median age of 42 years were assessed. Most common diagnosis was low grade glioma. Over 66% patients were illiterate, and 62% had semi-skilled and unskilled jobs, mostly agriculture. About 64.4% patients returned to employment in a median time of 3 months. At 6 months post-treatment 58.2% had a job, with only 42% working full-time. ‘Limb weakness’ (21.4%), followed by ‘loss of job/ no job’ (16.7%), ‘fatigue’/ ‘tiredness’ (14.3%), ‘poor vision/ diminished vision’ (11.9%) were the common reasons for no RTW. The factors found to be significantly associated with return to work were younger age (p = 0.042), male sex (0.013), the absence of complications during radiotherapy (p = 0.049), part time job prior to diagnosis (p = 0.047), and early return to work after RT (p < 0.001). Conclusion Studies are needed to identify the barriers in re- employment and steps to overcome them in cancer patients

High Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Causing Surgical Site Infection in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northeast India

Background and objective
Surgical site infections (SSI) are the most common healthcare-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and impose heavy demands on healthcare resources. We aimed to study the microbiological profile of SSI pathogens and their antibiotic-resistant patterns in a tertiary care teaching hospital serving mostly rural population

Methods
A prospective, hospital-based cross-sectional study on pathogen profile and drug resistance was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016. Study subjects were the patients who developed signs of SSI after undergoing surgical procedures at three surgical wards (General Surgery, Orthopedics, and Obstetrics & Gynecology). The selection of the patients was based on CDC Module. Standard bacteriological methods were applied for isolation of pathogens and antibiotic-susceptibility testing based on CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute) guidelines.

Results
Out of 518 enrolled subjects, 197 showed growth after aerobic culture yielding 228 pathogen isolates; 12.2% of samples showed polymicrobial growth. Escherichia coli (22.4%) and Klebsiella species (20.6%) were the predominant isolated bacteria followed by Staphylococcus species (18.4%), Pseudomonas species (12.3%), and Enterococcus species (6.6%). Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were highly resistant to ampicillin (90.1%) and cefazolin (85.9%). High resistance was also observed to mainstay drugs like ceftriaxone (48.4%), cefepime (61%), amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (43.4%), and ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin (37.7%). Among the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus showed 85-96% resistance to penicillin and 65-74% to ampicillin. But GPCs were relatively less resistant to quinolones (16-18%) and macrolides (21.5%). S. aureus was 100% sensitive to vancomycin and clindamycin but vancomycin-resistant Enterococci was encountered in 3/15 (20%) isolates.

Conclusion
GNBs were responsible for more than two-thirds of aerobic-culture positive SSI and showed high resistance to the commonly used antibiotics thus leaving clinicians with few choices. This necessitates periodic surveillance of causative organisms and their antibiotic-susceptibility pattern to help in formulating hospital antibiotic policy. The antibiotic stewardship program is yet to be adopted in our hospital.

An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Prevention of Road Trac Collisions and Neurotrauma in India: Perspectives From Key Informants in an Indian Industrial City (Visakhapatnam)

Background: Despite current preventative strategies, road traffic collisions (RTCs) and resultant neurotrauma remain a major problem in India. This study seeks to explore local perspectives in the context within which RTCs take place and identify potential suggestions for improving the current status.

Methods: Ten semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected key informants from the city of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. Participants were from one of the following categories: commissioning stakeholders; service providers; community or local patient group/advocacy group representatives. Transcripts from these interviews were analysed qualitatively using the Framework Method.

Results: Participants felt RTCs are a serious problem in India and a leading cause of neurotrauma. Major risk factors identified related to user behaviour such as speeding and not using personal safety equipment, and the user state, namely drink driving and underage driving. Other reported risk factors included poor infrastructure, moving obstacles on the road, overloaded vehicles and substandard safety equipment. Participants discussed how RTCs affect not only the health of the victim, but are also a burden to the healthcare system, families, and the national economy. Although there are ongoing preventative strategies being carried out by both the government and the community, challenges to successful prevention emerged from the interviews which included resource deficiencies, inconsistent implementation, lack of appropriate action, poor governance, lack of knowledge and the mindset of the community and entities involved in prevention. Recommendations were given on how prevention of RTCs and neurotrauma might be improved, addressing the areas of education and awareness, research, the pre-hospital and trauma systems, enforcement and legislation, and road engineering, in addition to building collaborations and changing mindsets.

Conclusions: RTCs remain a major problem in India and a significant cause of neurotrauma. Addressing the identified gaps and shortfalls in current approaches and reinforcing collective responsibility towards road safety would be the way forward in improving prevention and reducing the burden.