Assessment of Eustachian Tube Functioning Following Surgical Intervention of Oral Submucus Fibrosis by Using Tympanometry & Audiometry

Oral Submucus fibrosis has been reported to cause variation in hearing sensitivity & changes in middle ear function. This study was conducted to validate the influence of OSMF and its surgical correction on middle ear function and hearing sensitivity. In this study, 20 patients (40 ears) suffering from biopsy proven OSMF (Group 2 & 3) were tested for Middle ear dysfunction and hearing sensitivity using Tympanometry & Audiometry. On Tympanometry, Type A curve was obtained in 29 ears, Type B curve in 11 ears preoperatively. Immediate postoperatively TYPE A curve was obtained in 27 ears, TYPE B curve in 13 ears. After 1 month and 3 month Type B curve was not obtained in any ear. On Audiometry,28 ears showed normal hearing and 12 ears showed minimal conductive hearing loss preoperatively and Immediate postoperatively. Tests after 1 month and 3 months showed all 40 ears having normal hearing. Results were found statistically significant with p value 0.000 and F value of 11.331 in Tympanometry and 11.143 in Audiometry. Pearson correlation test revealed that results from both the test are highly co related (0.902). OSMF causes fibrotic changes in paratubal muscles which in addition with restricted mouth opening hampers proper Eustachian tube functioning in turn causing changes in Middle ear function. This feature is seldom/infrequently found in Group 2 and 3 and if encountered can be dealt effectively with surgical intervention.

The Impact of Cleft Lip/Palate and Surgical Intervention on Adolescent Life Outcomes: Evidence from Operation Smile in India

Cleft Lip/Palate (CLP) is a congenital orofacial anomaly appearing in approximately one in 700 births worldwide. While in high-income countries CLP is normally addressed surgically during infancy, in developing countries CLP is often left unoperated, potentially impacting multiple dimensions of life quality. Previous research has frequently compared CLP outcomes to those of the general population. But because local environmental and genetic factors both contribute to the risk of CLP and also may influence life outcomes, such studies may present a downward bias in estimates of both CLP status and restorative surgery. Working with the non- profit organization Operation Smile, this research uses quasi-experimental causal methods on a novel data set of 1,118 Indian children to study the impact of CLP status and CLP correction on the physical, psychological, and social well-being of Indian teenagers. Our results indicate that adolescents with median-level CLP severity show statistically significant losses in indices of speech quality (-1.55), academic and cognitive ability (-0.43), physical well-being (-0.35), psychological well-being (-0.23), and social inclusion (-0.35). We find that CLP surgery improves speech if carried out at an early age, and that it significantly restores social inclusion.

Uro-oncology in Times of COVID-19: The Available Evidence and Recommendations in the Indian Scenario

The Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), one of the most devastating pandemics ever, has left thousands of cancer patients to their fate. The future course of this pandemic is still an enigma, but health care services are expected to resume soon in a phased manner. This might be a long drawn process and we need to have policies in place, to be able to fight both, the SARS-CoV-2 virus and cancer, simultaneously, and emerge triumphant. An extensive literature search for impact of delay in management of various urological malignancies was carried out. Expert opinions were sought wherever there was paucity of evidence, in order to reach a consensus and come up with recommendations for directing uro-oncology services in the times of COVID-19. The panel recommends deferring treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma by 3 to 6 months, except for those with ongoing hematuria and/or inferior vena cava thrombus, which warrant immediate surgery. Metastatic renal cell cancers should be started on targeted therapy. Low grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancers can be kept on active surveillance while high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancers and muscle invasive bladder cancers should be treated within 3 months. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be avoided. Management of low and intermediate risk prostate cancer can be deferred for 3 to 6months while high risk prostate cancer patients can be initiated on neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Patients with testicular tumors should undergo high inguinal orchiectomy and be treated according to stage without delay, with stage I patients being offered surveillance. Penile cancers should undergo penectomy, while clinically negative groins can be kept on surveillance. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be avoided and adjuvant therapy should be deferred. We need to tailor our treatment strategies to the prevailing present conditions, so as to fight and defeat both, the SARS-CoV-2 virus and cancer. Protection of health care workers, judicious use of available resources, and a rational and balanced outlook towards different malignancies is the need of the hour.

All India Ophthalmological Society – Oculoplastics Association of India Consensus Statement on Preferred Practices in Oculoplasty and Lacrimal Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Oculoplastic surgeries encompass both emergency surgeries for traumatic conditions and infectious disorders as well as elective aesthetic procedures. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a drastic change in this practice. Given the highly infectious nature of the disease as well as the global scarcity of medical resources; it is only prudent to treat only emergent conditions during the pandemic as we incorporate evidence-based screening and protective measures into our practices. This manuscript is a compilation of evidence-based guidelines for surgical procedures that oculoplastic surgeons can employ during the COVID-19 pandemic. These guidelines also serve as the basic framework upon which further recommendations may be based on in the future, as elective surgeries start being performed on a regular basis.

Resurgence of “Bow and Arrow” Related Ocular Trauma: Collateral Damage Arising From COVID-19 Lockdown in India?

Penetrating ocular trauma in children often presents late and may be associated with complications due to delayed presentation as children are not always able to verbalize their injuries. Previous studies have shown that children aged 5 and above were more frequently affected and it was also noted that boys were more frequently affected than girls. Children involved in unsupervised games often get injured and “bow and arrow” injuries were known to be a fairly common cause of penetrating trauma in children, in the past.

COVID 19 and Laparoscopic Surgeons, the Indian Scenario – Perspective

Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID 19) had emerged as a global pandemic in recent times. The healthcare sector is at the epicentre of this unprecedented global pandemic challenge. Hospitals all over the world have reduced the number of non-emergency surgeries in order to utilize the staff and resources in a more efficient way. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is most transmitted via respiratory droplets, but risk of transmission is hugely increased while doing aerosol generating procedures (AGPs). Laparoscopy remains the preferred surgical approach for most surgical indications. There is theoretical possibility of generation of aerosols contaminated with COVID-19 from leaked CO2 and smoke generation after energy device use. The aim of this paper is to review available evidence evaluating the risk of spread of COVID-19 during necessary laparoscopic procedures and to compile guidelines from relevant professional organizations to minimize this risk.

Impact of Delaying Surgery After Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer: Outcomes From a Tertiary Cancer Centre in India

Background
Delaying surgery after chemoradiation is one of the strategies for increasing tumor regression in rectal cancer. Tumour regression and PCR are known to have positive impact on survival.
Methods
It’s a retrospective study of 161 patients undergoing surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Patients were divided into three categories based on the gap between NCRT and surgery, i.e., 12 weeks. Tumor regression grades (TRG), sphincter preservation, post-operative morbidity-mortality and survival were evaluated.
Results
Sphincter preservation was significantly less in >12 weeks group compared to the other two groups (P=0.003). Intraoperative blood loss was significantly higher in >12 weeks group compared to 8-12 weeks group (P=0.001).There was no difference in major postoperative morbidity and hospital stay among the groups. There was no significant correlation between delay and TRG (P=0.644). At Median follow up of 49.5 months the projected 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were not significantly different among the 3 groups (OS: 79.5% vs. 83.3% vs. 76.5%; P=0.849 and DFS 50.4% vs. 70.6% vs. 62%; P=0.270 respectively).
Conclusions
Delaying surgery by more than 12 weeks causes more blood loss but no change in morbidity or hospital stay. Increased time interval between radiation and surgery does not improve tumor regression and has no effect on survival.

Is Quality of Life After Mastectomy Comparable to That After Breast Conservation Surgery? A 5-year Follow Up Study From Mumbai, India

Purpose
Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women worldwide. Surgery is a central part of the treatment. Modified radical mastectomy (MRM) is often replaced by breast conserving therapy (BCT) in high-income countries. MRM is still the standard choice, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as radiotherapy, a mandatory component of BCT is not widely available. It is important to understand whether quality of life (QOL) after MRM is comparable to that after BCT. This has not been studied well in LMICs. We present, 5-year follow-up of QOL scores in breast cancer patients from India.

Methods
We interviewed women undergoing breast cancer surgery preoperatively, at 6 months after surgery, and at 1 year and 5 years, postoperatively. QOL scores were evaluated using FACT B questionnaire. Average QOL scores of women undergoing BCT were compared with those undergoing MRM. Total scores, domain scores and trends of scores over time were analyzed.

Results
We interviewed 54 women with a mean age of 53 years (SD 9 ± years). QOL scores in all the women, dipped during the treatment period, in all subscales but improved thereafter and even surpassed the baseline in physical, emotional and breast-specific domains (p < 0.05) at 5 years. At the end of 5 years, there was no statistically significant difference between the MRM and BCT groups in any of the total or domain scores.

Conclusion
QOL scores in Indian women did not differ significantly between MRM and BCT in the long term. Both options are acceptable in the study setting.

Comparison of emergency department trauma triage performance of clinicians and clinical prediction models: a cohort study in India

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the abilities of clinicians and clinical prediction models to accurately triage emergency department (ED) trauma patients. We compared the decisions made by clinicians with the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), the Glasgow Coma Scale, Age and Systolic Blood Pressure (GAP) score, the Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) and the Gerdin et al model.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Three hospitals in urban India.

Participants: In total, 7697 adult patients who presented to participating hospitals with a history of trauma were approached for enrolment. The final study sample included 5155 patients. The majority (4023, 78.0%) were male.

Main outcome measure The patient outcome was mortality within 30 days of arrival at the participating hospital. A grid search was used to identify model cut-off values. Clinicians and categorised models were evaluated and compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROCC) and net reclassification improvement in non-survivors (NRI+) and survivors (NRI−) separately.

Results:The differences in AUROCC between each categorised model and the clinicians were 0.016 (95% CI −0.014 to 0.045) for RTS, 0.019 (95% CI −0.007 to 0.058) for GAP, 0.054 (95% CI 0.033 to 0.077) for KTS and −0.007 (95% CI −0.035 to 0.03) for Gerdin et al. The NRI+ for each model were −0.235 (−0.37 to −0.116), 0.17 (−0.042 to 0.405), 0.55 (0.47 to 0.65) and 0.22 (0.11 to 0.717), respectively. The NRI− were 0.385 (0.348 to 0.4), −0.059 (−0.476 to −0.005), −0.162 (−0.18 to −0.146) and 0.039 (−0.229 to 0.06), respectively.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that there are no substantial differences in discrimination and net reclassification improvement between clinicians and all four clinical prediction models when using 30-day mortality as the outcome of ED trauma triage in adult patients.

Similarities and Differences in Specialty Training of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics (India), Operative Dentistry (Pakistan) and Restorative Dentistry-Endodontics (United Kingdom)

Dental education and training in Pakistan and India are largely influenced by the British system of education. However, there are some differences in the mode of postgraduate training in these countries. In Pakistan, hospital-based residency training is the mainstay, culminating in a fellowship diploma awarded by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan. Whereas, in Indian students of dentistry pursue university-based MDS programme as the primary pathway to specialist training. From the beginning the Indian dental academia has remained vigilant in adopting a correct nomenclature for the specialty concerned with the dental conservation. They named it Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics while in Pakistan the same specialty termed Operative Dentistry has become an obsolete term and does not represent the scope of work practiced by specialists in this discipline. A simple addition of the term “Endodontics” to the present nomenclature of “Operative Dentistry” will resolve the matter of a missing identity in a clinical specialty in Pakistan. The present paper suggests the need for advocacy to change the term used for this particular dental specialty.