Background: Open fractures are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. The threshold time to debridement that reduces the infection rate is unclear.
Methods: We searched all available databases to identify observational studies and randomized trials related to open fracture care. We then conducted an extensive meta-analysis of the observational studies, using raw and adjusted estimates, to determine if there was an association between the timing of initial debridement and infection.
Results: We identified 84 studies (18,239 patients) for the primary analysis. In unadjusted analyses comparing various “late” time thresholds for debridement versus “early” thresholds, there was an association between timing of debridement and surgical site infection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 1.49, p < 0.001, I2 = 30%, 84 studies, n =18,239). For debridement performed between 12 and 24 hours versus earlier than 12 hours, the OR was higher in tibial fractures (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.87, p = 0.05, I2 = 19%, 12 studies, n = 2,065), and even more so in Gustilo type-IIIB tibial fractures (OR = 1.46, 95% CI =
1.13 to 1.89, p = 0.004, I2 = 23%, 12 studies, n = 1,255). An analysis of Gustilo type-III fractures showed a progressive increase in the risk of infection with time. Critical time thresholds included 12 hours (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.78, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%, 16 studies, n = 3,502) and 24 hours (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.73 to 2.72, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%, 29 studies, n = 5,214).
Conclusions: High-grade open fractures demonstrated an increased risk of infection with progressive delay to debridement.
Background: Women’s health and wellbeing (WHW) have been receiving growing attention, but limited progress has been made on how to measure its different domains in the context of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Methods: We used data from five long-term birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines and South Africa to explore different domains of adult WHW, and how these domains relate to early life exposures. We calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficients on eight postulated WHW outcomes to identify possible domains and used principal component analyses (PCA) to derive a single continuous component variable for each domain.
Findings: The PCA based on available adult outcome data led to the identification of three domains: human capital (intelligence, schooling, height, and absence of teen childbearing), metabolic health (body mass index, metabolic syndrome signs) and psychological health (psychological symptoms score and self-reported happiness). The domains were uncorrelated. Only 5·8% of the women were in the upper tercile of all three domains whereas 33·2% were not in the top tercile of any domain. Early determinants (wealth, maternal education, maternal height, water and sanitation, birthweight, length at 2 years and development quotient in mid-childhood) were positively associated with human capital, while birth order was negatively associated. Few associations were found for the metabolic or psychological components. Birthweight and weight at age 2 years was associated with worse metabolic health. Maternal education was associated with improved psychological health.
Interpretation: Our findings indicate that WHW is multidimensional, with most women in the cohorts being compromised in one or more domains while few women scored highly in all three domains. Early life exposures are strongly related to human capital, but not to metabolic or psychological health. Our analyses are limited by lack of data on adolescent exposures and on other relevant WHW dimensions such as safety, agency, empowerment, and violence. Further research is needed in LMICs for identifying and measuring the multiple domains of WHW.
Funding: Wellcome Trust and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation – Funding for the research contributing to this paper was provided by the Wellcome Trust (grant # 101815/Z/13/Z). The COHORTS consortium was established through a grant from the Wellcome Trust (# 082554/Z/07/Z) and recent data collection was supported by a grant to Emory University from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1164115). In addition to the named authors, the COHORTS study team included Fernando Barros, Isabelita Bas, Judith Borja, Delia Carba, Natalia Peixoto Lima, Sara Naicker, Lukhanyo Nyati, Tita Lorna Perez, Jithin Varghese and Fernando Wehrmeister. The sponsors had no role in the analysis and interpretation of the evidence, writing of the paper, or decision to submit for publication.
Declaration of Interest: ADS reports grants from Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. ZAB reports grants from the International Development Research Centre (reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health in conflict settings: case studies to inform implementation of interventions) and Countdown to 2030–UNICEF. All other authors declare no competing interests.
Ethics Approval: Ethical approval for data collection and analyses was obtained at each site prior to each wave of data collection. Ethical clearance for the current pooled analyses was granted by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine, Federal University of Pelotas.
Gestational diabetes (GDM) impacts approximately 17 million pregnancies worldwide. Women with a history of GDM have an 8–10-fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and a 2-fold higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with women without prior GDM. Although it is possible to prevent and/or delay progression of GDM to type 2 diabetes, this is not widely undertaken. Considering the increasing global rates of type 2 diabetes and CVD in women, it is essential to utilize pregnancy as an opportunity to identify women at risk and initiate preventive intervention. This article reviews existing clinical guidelines for postpartum identification and management of women with previous GDM and identifies key recommendations for the prevention and/or delayed progression to type 2 diabetes for global clinical practice.
Although studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have examined the effects of c-sections on early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF), the role of the place of birth has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we tested the association between EIBF and the type of delivery by place of birth. Data from 73 nationally representative surveys carried out in LMICs between 2010 and 2019 comprised 408,013 women aged 15 to 49 years. Type of delivery by place of birth was coded in four categories: home vaginal delivery, institutional vaginal delivery, c-section in public, and c-section in private health facilities. We calculated the weighted mean prevalence of place of birth and EIBF by World Bank country income groups. Adjusted Poisson regression (PR) was fitted taking institutional vaginal delivery as a reference. The overall prevalence of EIBF was significantly lower among c-section deliveries in public (PR = 38%; 95% CI 0.618–0.628) and private facilities (PR = 45%; 95% CI 0.54–0.566) compared to institutional vaginal deliveries. EIBF in c-sections in public facilities was slightly higher in lower-middle (PR = 0.650, 95% CI 0.635–0.665) compared to low (PR = 0.544, 95% CI 0.521–0.567) and upper-middle income countries (PR = 0.612, 95% CI 0.599–0.626). EIBF was inversely associated with c-section deliveries compared to institutional vaginal deliveries, especially in private facilities compared to public ones.
Pediatric solid organ transplantation (SOT) is a preferred treatment for medically suitable children with end-stage organ failure. Still, many of them have no access to transplantation owing to socioeconomic constraints or lack of transplant facilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Establishing pediatric SOT programs in LMIC offers children the opportunities to receive transplant care in more familiar home environments as well as help curtail transplant tourism and improve transplant outcomes as pediatric transplantation would be performed ethically and legally. The International Pediatric Transplant Association (IPTA) is a professional organization aiming to promote safe, ethical, and high-quality pediatric transplantation worldwide. This society paper describes major obstacles to pediatric SOT in LMIC and provides guidance on developing and/or expanding pediatric SOT programs in such countries. We also summarize available resources from the IPTA Outreach Program to help establish and support pediatric SOT programs in LMIC.
Breast cancer survival is lower in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) partially due to many women being diagnosed with late-stage disease. The patient interval refers to the time elapsed between the detection of symptoms and the first consultation with a healthcare provider and is considered one of the core indicators for early diagnosis and treatment. The goal of the current research was to conduct a meta-analysis of the duration of the patient interval in LMICs and investigate the socio-demographic and socio-cultural factors related to longer delays in presentation.
We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis (pre-registered protocol CRD42020200752). We searched seven information sources (2009–2022) and included 50 articles reporting the duration of patient intervals for 18,014 breast cancer patients residing in LMICs.
The longest patient intervals were reported in studies from the Middle East (3–4 months), followed by South-East Asia (2 months), Africa (1–2 months), Latin America (1 month), and Eastern Europe (1 month). Older age, not being married, lower socio-economic status, illiteracy, low knowledge about cancer, disregarding symptoms or not attributing them to cancer, fear, negative beliefs about cancer, and low social support were related to longer delays across most regions. Longer delays were also related to use of alternative medicine in the Middle East, South-East Asia, and Africa and distrust in the healthcare system in Eastern Europe.
There is large variation in the duration of patient intervals across LMICs in different geographical regions. Patient intervals should be reduced and, for this purpose, it is important to explore their determinants taking into account the social, cultural, and economic context.
Caesarean section (C/S) rates have significantly increased across the world over the past decades. In the present population-based study, we sought to evaluate the association between C/S and neonatal mortality rates.
Material and methods
This retrospective ecological study included longitudinal data of 166 countries from 2000 to 2015. We evaluated the association between C/S rates and neonatal mortality rate (NMR), adjusting for total fertility rate, human development index (HDI), gross domestic product (GDP) percentage, and maternal age at first childbearing. The examinations were also performed considering different geographical regions as well as regions with different income levels.
The C/S rate and NMR in the 166 included countries were 19.97% ± 10.56% and 10 ± 10.27 per 1000 live birth, respectively. After adjustment for confounding variables, C/S rate and NMR were found correlated (r = -1.1, p < 0.001). Examination of the relationship between C/S rate and NMR in each WHO region resulted in an inverse correlation in Africa (r = -0.75, p = 0.005), Europe (r = -0.12, p < 0.001), South-East Asia (r = -0.41, p = 0.01), and Western Pacific (r = -0.13, p = 0.02), a direct correlation in America (r = 0.06, p = 0.04), and no correlation in Eastern Mediterranean (r = 0.01, p = 0.88). Meanwhile, C/S rate and NMR were inversely associated in regions with upper-middle (r = -0.15, p < 0.001) and lower-middle (r = -0.24, p < 0.001) income levels, directly associated in high-income regions (r = 0.02, p = 0.001), and not associated in low-income regions (p = 0.13). In countries with HDI below the centralized value of 1 (the real value of 0.9), the correlation between C/S rate and NMR was negative while it was found positive in countries with HDI higher than the mentioned cut-off.
This study indicated that NMR associated with C/S is dependent on various socioeconomic factors such as total fertility rate, HDI, GDP percentage, and maternal age at first childbearing. Further attentions to the socioeconomic status are warranted to minimize the NMR by modifying the C/S rate to the optimum cut-off.
Global surgery is interpreted differently and may lack an in-depth understanding which is complicated by socio-economy and culture. Global surgery and global health have become part of health care service following the report of the Lancet Commission. Sustainability, ethical principles, and decolonization are some important ongoing issues for recipient societies. Incorporating societal dimensions, socio-cultural values, patients’ needs, and affordability requires a tailored approach and not blindly pursuing the best technology. The recent COVID-19 has exposed the unethical and inequity in terms of equitable healthcare, vaccine rollout and its access, and unprecedented high mortality observed in some societies. Surgery has been a neglected stepchild of global health and in addition global surgery must not be a slave of technology for the promotion of the ‘gold standard’, especially corporate-led commercialized services because a sustainable and effective surgical service at a reduced cost is desirable for all, be resource-rich or poor. Global surgery and global health include health security and universal health coverage. Stakeholders of global surgery need to be aware that ‘one size does not fit all’ and are required to consider the diverse conditions.
Pediatric renal tumors account for 3%–11% of childhood cancers, the most common of which is Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma. Epidemiology plays a key role in cancer prevention and control by describing the distribution of cancer and discovering risk factors for cancer. Large pediatric research consortium trials have led to a clearer understanding of pediatric renal tumors, identification of risk factors, and development of more risk-adapted therapies. These therapies have improved event-free and overall survival for children. However, several challenges remain and not all children have benefited from the improved outcomes. In this article, we review the global epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors, including key consortium and global studies. We identify current knowledge gaps and challenges facing both high and low middle-incomes countries.
The ‘Choosing Wisely 2022’ conference, organised by the ecancer foundation, was held at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India, on 17 and 18 September. It was a successful event with 159 delegates attending it in person and around 328 delegates attending online. Thirty oncology experts from across the world shared their thoughts during this meeting. The theme of the conference was to focus on cancer care, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The emphasis of discussion was on ways to select more cost-effective and high value treatments and interventions and minimise financial toxicity. In addition, cancer research from LMICs needs to be improved substantially. Collaboration and networking amongst cancer institutions in LMICs is essential.