Epidemiological trends in community acquired acute Kidney Injury in Pakistan: 25 years Experience from a Tertiary Care Renal Unit

Background: Epidemiological studies of community acquired acute kidney injury (AKI) are sparse especially from South Asia and none has published from Pakistan. Reported incidences from different countries vary with use of different criteria of defining AKI. There is also variation found in different class of income countries, hospital based versus community based AKI.

Methods: The current study was carried out in all adult AKI patients developing community acquired AKI and coming to a tertiary care renal institution from January 1990 to December 2014. This is a retrospective data collection from patient’s records and AKI was defined according to KDIGO guidelines. Trends among different groups which are classified in medical, obstetrical and surgical were observed and presented.

Results: In medical AKI there has been found a rise in toxic rhabdomyolysis, vivax malaria and dengue infection during later part of study. In obstetrical AKI observed continuous rise in numbers contributing to total AKI during these years. Surgical AKI included obstructed cases during initial ten years and only surgical trauma during later 15 years. Older age on presentation in medical AKI, and thrombocytopenia, deranged coagulation, deranged liver function, hyperkalemia, requirement of mechanical ventilation and multi organ failure in all groups remained predictors of higher mortality.

Conclusion: From Pakistan epidemiology for community acquired AKI has never been published on a large scale and this study would remain source of great information in this regard over coming years.

Secondary Peritonitis and Intra-Abdominal Sepsis: An Increasingly Global Disease in Search of Better Systemic Therapies

Secondary peritonitis and intra-abdominal sepsis are a global health problem. The life-threatening systemic insult that results from intra-abdominal sepsis has been extensively studied and remains somewhat poorly understood. While local surgical therapy for perforation of the abdominal viscera is an age-old therapy, systemic therapies to control the subsequent systemic inflammatory response are scarce. Advancements in critical care have led to improved outcomes in secondary peritonitis. The understanding of the effect of secondary peritonitis on the human microbiome is an evolving field and has yielded potential therapeutic targets. This review of secondary peritonitis discusses the history, classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and future directions of the management of secondary peritonitis. Ongoing clinical studies in the treatment of secondary peritonitis and the open abdomen are discussed

Point-of-Care Ultrasound: Applications in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Purpose of Review
This review highlights the applications of point-of-care ultrasound in low- and middle-income countries and shows the diversity of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of patients.

Recent Findings
There is a paucity of data on point-of-care ultrasound in anesthesiology in low- and middle-income countries. However, research has shown that point-of-care ultrasound can effectively help manage infectious diseases, as well as abdominal and pulmonary pathologies.

Summary
Point-of-care ultrasound is a low-cost imaging modality that can be used for the diagnosis and management of diseases that affect low- and middle-income countries. There is limited data on the use of ultrasound in anesthesiology, which provides clinicians and researchers opportunity to study its use during the perioperative period.

Double standards in healthcare innovations: the case of mosquito net mesh for hernia repair

With over two decades of evidence available including from randomised clinical trials, we explore whether the use of low-cost mosquito net mesh for inguinal hernia repair, common practice only in low-income and middle-income countries, represents a double standard in surgical care. We explore the clinical evidence, biomechanical properties and sterilisation requirements for mosquito net mesh for hernia repair and discuss the rationale for its use routinely in all settings, including in high-income settings. Considering that mosquito net mesh is as effective and safe as commercial mesh, and also with features that more closely resemble normal abdominal wall tissue, there is a strong case for its use in all settings, not just low-income and middle-income countries. In the healthcare sector specifically, either innovations should be acceptable for all contexts, or none at all. If such a double standard exists and worse, persists, it raises serious questions about the ethics of promoting healthcare innovations in some but not all contexts in terms of risks to health outcomes, equitable access, and barriers to learning.

Organ Donation and Transplantation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and Challenges

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), occupying about 80% of the African continent is a heterogeneous region with estimated population of 1.1 billion people in 47 countries. Most belong to the low resource countries (LRCs). The high prevalence of end-organ diseases of kidney, liver, lung and heart makes provision of organ donation and transplantation necessary. Although kidney and heart transplantations were performed in South Africa in the 1960s, transplant activity in SSA lags behind the developed world. Peculiar challenges militating against successful development of transplant programmes include high cost of treatment, low GDP of most countries, inadequate infrastructural and institutional support, absence of subsidy, poor knowledge of the disease condition, poor accessibility to health-care facilities, religious and trado-cultural practices. Many people in the region patronize alternative healthcare as first choice. Opportunities that if harnessed may alter the unfavorable landscape are: implementation of the 2007 WHO Regional Consultation recommendations for establishment of national legal framework and self-sufficient organ donation/transplantation in each country and adoption of their 2020 proposed actions for organ/transplantation for member states, national registries with sharing of data with GODT, prevention of transplant commercialization and tourism. Additionally, adapting some aspects of proven successful models in LRCs will improve transplantation programmes in SSA.

High Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Causing Surgical Site Infection in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northeast India

Background and objective
Surgical site infections (SSI) are the most common healthcare-associated infections in low- and middle-income countries associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and impose heavy demands on healthcare resources. We aimed to study the microbiological profile of SSI pathogens and their antibiotic-resistant patterns in a tertiary care teaching hospital serving mostly rural population

Methods
A prospective, hospital-based cross-sectional study on pathogen profile and drug resistance was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016. Study subjects were the patients who developed signs of SSI after undergoing surgical procedures at three surgical wards (General Surgery, Orthopedics, and Obstetrics & Gynecology). The selection of the patients was based on CDC Module. Standard bacteriological methods were applied for isolation of pathogens and antibiotic-susceptibility testing based on CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute) guidelines.

Results
Out of 518 enrolled subjects, 197 showed growth after aerobic culture yielding 228 pathogen isolates; 12.2% of samples showed polymicrobial growth. Escherichia coli (22.4%) and Klebsiella species (20.6%) were the predominant isolated bacteria followed by Staphylococcus species (18.4%), Pseudomonas species (12.3%), and Enterococcus species (6.6%). Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were highly resistant to ampicillin (90.1%) and cefazolin (85.9%). High resistance was also observed to mainstay drugs like ceftriaxone (48.4%), cefepime (61%), amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (43.4%), and ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin (37.7%). Among the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus showed 85-96% resistance to penicillin and 65-74% to ampicillin. But GPCs were relatively less resistant to quinolones (16-18%) and macrolides (21.5%). S. aureus was 100% sensitive to vancomycin and clindamycin but vancomycin-resistant Enterococci was encountered in 3/15 (20%) isolates.

Conclusion
GNBs were responsible for more than two-thirds of aerobic-culture positive SSI and showed high resistance to the commonly used antibiotics thus leaving clinicians with few choices. This necessitates periodic surveillance of causative organisms and their antibiotic-susceptibility pattern to help in formulating hospital antibiotic policy. The antibiotic stewardship program is yet to be adopted in our hospital.

The scope of operative general paediatric surgical diseases in South Africa—the Chris Hani Baragwanath experience

Background
Infectious diseases have always been the lime light of global health with very little focus on childhood surgical conditions despite the fact that children constitute about half of the population in LMICs. A significant proportion of the burden of global disease can be reduced by surgical intervention. South Africa is one of the pioneers of the practice of paediatric surgery in Africa with a great burden of paediatric surgical conditions.

Few studies, if any, have investigated the burden of operative paediatric surgical procedures in South Africa. Therefore, this retrospective study aimed to look at the scope of operative paediatric surgical procedures at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (CHBAH) based in Johannesburg, South Africa, and reports on the numbers of elective and emergency procedures over a 12-month study period.

Results
There were 1699 operative general paediatric surgical procedures of which 61.7% were electives and 38.3% were emergencies. The scope of general paediatric surgical conditions operated on fell under the categories of congenital anomalies, infections and tumours. Of these, surgeries for congenital anomalies were performed in almost all the subspecialties.

Conclusion
There is a high operative paediatric surgical burden at the CHBAH. The role of paediatric surgical care as an essential component of global health cannot be underrated.

Anastomotic leak following oesophagectomy: research priorities from an international Delphi consensus study

Background
The Oesophago-Gastric Anastomosis Audit (OGAA) is an international collaborative group set up to study anastomotic leak outcomes after oesophagectomy for cancer. This Delphi study aimed to prioritize future research areas of unmet clinical need in RCTs to reduce anastomotic leaks.

Methods
A modified Delphi process was overseen by the OGAA committee, national leads, and engaged clinicians from high-income countries (HICs) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs). A three‐stage iterative process was used to prioritize research topics, including a scoping systematic review (stage 1), and two rounds of anonymous electronic voting (stages 2 and 3) addressing research priority and ability to recruit. Stratified analyses were performed by country income.

Results
In stage 1, the steering committee proposed research topics across six domains: preoperative optimization, surgical oncology, technical approach, anastomotic technique, enhanced recovery and nutrition, and management of leaks. In stages 2 and stage 3, 192 and 171 respondents respectively participated in online voting. Prioritized research topics include prehabilitation, anastomotic technique, and timing of surgery after neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy. Stratified analyses by country income demonstrated no significant differences in research priorities between HICs and LMICs. However, for ability to recruit, there were significant differences between LMICs and HICs for themes related to the technical approach (minimally invasive, width of gastric tube, ischaemic preconditioning) and location of the anastomosis.

Conclusion
Several areas of research priority are consistent across LMICs and HICs, but discrepancies in ability to recruit by country income will inform future study design.

Radiologic-Pathologic Analysis of Increased Ethanol Localization and Ablative Extent Achieved by Ethyl Cellulose

Purpose
Ethanol provides a rapid, low-cost ablative solution for liver tumors with a small technological footprint but suffers from uncontrolled diffusion in target tissue, limiting treatment precision and accuracy. The authors demonstrate that incorporating the gel-forming polymer ethyl cellulose to ethanol localizes the distribution. This therapy may have a low barrier of entry for cancer care in low- and middle- income countries.

Materials and Methods
The relationship of radiodensity to ethanol concentration was characterized with water-ethanol surrogates. Ex vivo EC-ethanol ablations were performed to optimize the formulation (n=6). In vivo ablations were performed to compare the optimal EC-ethanol formulation to pure ethanol (n=6). Ablations were monitored with CT and ethanol distribution volume was quantified. Livers were explanted, sectioned and stained with NADH-diaphorase to determine the ablative extent.

Results
CT imaging of ethanol-water surrogates demonstrated the ethanol concentration-radiodensity relationship is approximately linear. A concentration of 12% EC in ethanol created the largest distribution volume, more than 8-fold that of pure ethanol, ex vivo. In vivo, 12% EC-ethanol was superior to pure ethanol, yielding a distribution volume 3 times greater and an ablation zone 6 times greater than pure ethanol.

Conclusions
EC-ethanol, a novel gel formulation injectable ablative injectate, safely increases distribution and necrosis compared to pure ethanol.

Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in children: an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study

Introduction Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). However, there is a lack of data available about SSI in children worldwide, especially from low-income and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of SSI in children and associations between SSI and morbidity across human development settings.

Methods A multicentre, international, prospective, validated cohort study of children aged under 16 years undergoing clean-contaminated, contaminated or dirty gastrointestinal surgery. Any hospital in the world providing paediatric surgery was eligible to contribute data between January and July 2016. The primary outcome was the incidence of SSI by 30 days. Relationships between explanatory variables and SSI were examined using multilevel logistic regression. Countries were stratified into high development, middle development and low development groups using the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI).

Results Of 1159 children across 181 hospitals in 51 countries, 523 (45·1%) children were from high HDI, 397 (34·2%) from middle HDI and 239 (20·6%) from low HDI countries. The 30-day SSI rate was 6.3% (33/523) in high HDI, 12·8% (51/397) in middle HDI and 24·7% (59/239) in low HDI countries. SSI was associated with higher incidence of 30-day mortality, intervention, organ-space infection and other HAIs, with the highest rates seen in low HDI countries. Median length of stay in patients who had an SSI was longer (7.0 days), compared with 3.0 days in patients who did not have an SSI. Use of laparoscopy was associated with significantly lower SSI rates, even after accounting for HDI.

Conclusion The odds of SSI in children is nearly four times greater in low HDI compared with high HDI countries. Policies to reduce SSI should be prioritised as part of the wider global agenda