Septicemia is a life-threatening infection when pathogenic bacteria infiltrate the bloodstream, leading morbidity and mortality in Ethiopian hospital patients. Multidrug resistance is a therapeutic challenge among this patient and has a paucity of data in the hospitals. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and associated factors among septicemia suspected patients.
Prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 214 septicemia suspected patients from February to June 2021 a hospital in northwest, Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected aseptically and processed to identify bacterial isolates by using different standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was performed using the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion on Mueller Hinton agar. Epi-data V4.2 was used to enter data and SPSS V25 for analysis. The variables were assessed using a bivariate logistic regression model with a 95% confidence interval, and declared statistically significant; P-value was < 0.05.
The overall bacterial isolates was found 45/214 (21%) in this study. Gram-negative and positive bacteria were 25/45(55.6%), 20/45(44.4%) respectively. The most common bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus12/45 (26.7%), Klebsiella pneumonia8/45(17.8%), Escherichia coli 6/45 (13.3%). Gram-negative bacteria showed susceptible to amikacin (88%), meropenem, imipenem (76%), but resistance to (92%) ampicillin, (85.7%) amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. S.aureus (91.7%) resistance to Penicillin, (58.3%) cefoxitin and (75%) susceptible to ciprofloxacillin. S.pyogenes and S.agalactia were (100%) susceptible to Vancomacin. Multidrug resistance was found in 27/45(60%) of the bacterial isolates. The main predictors related to patients suspected of septicemia were prolonged hospitalization (AOR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.22), fever (AOR = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.18, 0.85) and length of hospital stay (AOR = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.02, 0.82).
Bacterial isolates among septicemia suspected patients were high. The majority of the bacterial isolates were multidrug-resistant. To prevent antimicrobial resistance, specific antibiotic utilization strategy should be applied.