Implementation and results of a surgical training programme for chronic suppurative otitis media in Cambodia.

Chronic suppurative otitis media is a massive public health problem in numerous low- and middle-income countries. Unfortunately, few low- and middle-income countries can offer surgical therapy.A six-month long programme in Cambodia focused on training local surgeons in type I tympanoplasty was instigated. Qualitative educational and quantitative surgical outcomes were evaluated in the 12 months following programme completion. A four-month long training programme in mastoidectomy and homograft ossiculoplasty was subsequently implemented, and the preliminary surgical and educational outcomes were reported.A total of 124 patients underwent tympanoplasty by the locally trained surgeons. Tympanic membrane closure at six weeks post-operation was 88.5 per cent. Pure tone audiometry at three months showed that 80.9 per cent of patients had improved hearing, with a mean gain of 17.1 dB. The trained surgeons reported high confidence in performing tympanoplasty. Early outcomes suggest the local surgeons can perform mastoidectomy and ossiculoplasty as safely as overseas-trained surgeons, with reported surgeon confidence reflecting these positive outcomes.The training programme has demonstrated success, as measured by surgeon confidence and operative outcomes. This approach can be emulated in other settings to help combat the global burden of chronic suppurative otitis media.

Cost-effectiveness of cochlear implants in developing countries.

Cost-effectiveness of cochlear implants is a major concern for expanding these services to low-income and middle-income developing countries.Recent studies have applied appropriate methodology to make determination of cost-effectiveness for cochlear implants in developing countries. In addition, important parameters that effect cost-effectiveness have been reviewed in a systematic way. The combination of these new studies along with existing reports of cochlear implant programmes in developing countries allows for a discussion of cost and outcomes determinants that drive cost-effectiveness in these environments.Cochlear implants are a very cost-effective treatment for profound hearing loss in all high-resource countries and in many low-income and middle-income developing countries. A number of cost considerations affect cost-effectiveness of cochlear implants in developing countries including device cost and device-related expenses such as power consumption and reliability, but also including rehabilitation and access-related expenses. Large-scale programmes confer an advantage for cost-effectiveness, primarily through device-related savings.