Predictors of Survival After Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma in South America: The InterCHANGE Study

PURPOSE
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) incidence is high in South America, where recent data on survival are sparse. We investigated the main predictors of HNSCC survival in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Colombia.

METHODS
Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was obtained from standardized interviews, and clinicopathologic data were extracted from medical records and pathologic reports. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used for statistical analyses.

RESULTS
Of 1,463 patients, 378 had a larynx cancer (LC), 78 hypopharynx cancer (HC), 599 oral cavity cancer (OC), and 408 oropharynx cancer (OPC). Most patients (55.5%) were diagnosed with stage IV disease, ranging from 47.6% for LC to 70.8% for OPC. Three-year survival rates were 56.0% for LC, 54.7% for OC, 48.0% for OPC, and 37.8% for HC. In multivariable models, patients with stage IV disease had approximately 7.6 (LC/HC), 11.7 (OC), and 3.5 (OPC) times higher mortality than patients with stage I disease. Current and former drinkers with LC or HC had approximately 2 times higher mortality than never-drinkers. In addition, older age at diagnosis was independently associated with worse survival for all sites. In a subset analysis of 198 patients with OPC with available human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 data, those with HPV-unrelated OPC had a significantly worse 3-year survival compared with those with HPV-related OPC (44.6% v 75.6%, respectively), corresponding to a 3.4 times higher mortality.

CONCLUSION
Late stage at diagnosis was the strongest predictor of lower HNSCC survival. Early cancer detection and reduction of harmful alcohol use are fundamental to decrease the high burden of HNSCC in South America.

Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy: A prospective analysis among ICU patients

Introduction: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is a simple bedside procedure, particularly useful in the intensive care units. Over the last few decades, the technique of PDT has gained popularity due to its comparable safety to the more surgical tracheostomy (ST).

Objective: To describe the outcome of PDT using modified Ciaglia’s technique in patients of Surgical ICU.

Methodology: This was a prospective cohort study that analysed the outcomes of PDTs carried out on critically ill patients admitted in the surgical ICU, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from August 2015 to January 2017. All PDTs were performed by the presiding consultant and his team using modified Ciaglia’s (Blue Rhino) technique. The main outcome was the frequency of perioperative and early complications within the first six days. Demographic variables and complications were recorded. Data was analysed using SPSS version 18.

Results: Seventy-four patients underwent PDTs in the surgical ICU with mean age of the patients was 49.17 ± 12.82 years. The commonest indication of tracheostomy was prolonged mechanical ventilation followed by failure to wean. Complications rate was 12.16% of which perioperative bleeding occurred in 6.7% of patients. Early complications within the first six days were wound infection, tube displacement and blocked tube.

Conclusion: PDT is a valuable, efficacious and safe method that can be performed at the bedside with minimal complication rate and needs to be considered more frequently in the intensive care units in developing countries.

Availability of ENT Surgical Procedures and Medication in Low-Income Nation Hospitals: Cause for Concern in Zambia

Background
Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) diseases are an oft overlooked global health concern. Despite their high prevalence and associated morbidity and mortality, ENT diseases have remained neglected in health care delivery. In Zambia and many other low-income countries, ENT services are characterized by poor funding, unavailable surgical procedures, and erratic supply of essential drugs.
Objective
To investigate ENT service provision in Zambia with regard to availability of surgical procedures and supply of essential drugs.
Methods
A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a piloted structured questionnaire between 17 January 2017 and 2 January 2018. Included in the study were the 109 hospitals registered with the Ministry of Health (MoH) across the 10 provinces of Zambia.
Results
Of the participating hospitals, only 5.9% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (n = 1) and 40% (.
Conclusion
ENT service delivery in Zambia is limited with regard to performed surgical procedures and availability of essential drugs, necessitating urgent intervention. The findings from this study may be used to direct national policy on the improvement of provision of ENT services in Zambia.

Intranasal Splints In Reducing Post-operative Adhesions After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Objective: To compare the frequency of post-operative adhesions after endoscopic sinus surgery with and without intranasal silastic splint.

Study Design: Quasi experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Research was conducted at department of ENT, Combined Military Hospital Muzaffarabad, from Sep 2016 to Mar 2017.

Methodology: This study involved 62 patients of both genders aged between 15-60 years undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery who were randomly allocated into two treatment groups. Patients in groups-A received silastic splint in addition to anterior nasal packing while those in group-B received anterior nasal packing alone. Outcome variable was frequency of post-operative adhesions which was noted and compared between the groups.

Results: The mean age and SD of the patients was 33.58 ± 11.11 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 11.81 ± 3.20 months. Both the study groups were comparable in terms of mean age (p=0.910), mean duration of symptoms (p=0.876) and age (p=0.866), gender (p=1.000) and duration of symptoms (p=1.000) groups. Post-operative adhesions were observed in 5 (8.1%) cases and all of them belonged to study group-B. The frequency of post-operative adhesion formation was significantly higher in patients receiving anterior nasal packing alone (16.1% vs. 0.0%; p=0.020) as compared to those receiving silastic splint in addition to anterior nasal packing. Similar difference was observed across various age, gender and duration of symptoms groups.

Conclusion: The use of silastic splint was associated with significant reduction of post-operative adhesions in patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery regardless of patient’s age, gender and duration of symptoms.

Hydatid cyst of thyroid gland, a rare case report with a literature review

Introduction: Although hydatid cysts can affect any organ in the body, reports regarding affection of thyroid gland are scanty in the literature. This report aims to present a case of thyroid hydatid disease with literature review.

Case report: A 48-year-old female presented with painless anterior neck mass of about 2 year duration. There was an ill-defined, central anterior neck mass, with a smooth surface and mobile with deglutition. Ultrasound of the thyroid gland revealed an enlarged left lobe of thyroid gland due to well defined thick wall cystic nodule. The patient underwent left thyroid lobectomy under general anesthesia, the pathology report revealed hydatid cyst of thyroid gland.

Discussion: Liver and lungs are often the end destination for hydatid cysts, while other places like mediastinum, diaphragm, cardiac, smooth and skeletal muscles, abdominal and chest walls are rarely involved. In this case, the cyst affected even a rarer organ which was the left lobe of thyroid gland. Most of the time the disease is asymptomatic and is found accidentally, yet depending on the site and size of the cysts, symptoms can occur.

Conclusion: Hydatid disease of thyroid gland is an extremely rare condition. The main presenting symptom is swelling. Operation under general anesthesia is the only modality of treatment.

Incidence of pyramidal thyroid lobe in the university college hospital Ibadan

The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland is derived from remnant of the thyroglossal duct. Its presence may be missed clinically; however radiologic and intra-operative findings reveal its presence in up to 50% of cases. The incidence of pyramidal lobe is however not clearly known in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Nigeria. Our aim is to determine the incidence and histological variation of pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland among surgical patients who underwent thyroid surgery in the University College Hospital, Ibadan.
Consecutive surgical patients that underwent total thyroidectomy in the Endocrine Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan between April 2013 and April 2017 were recruited irrespective of age, sex and clinical diagnosis. The presence, anatomy and subsequent histological diagnosis of the pyramidal lobe were noted.
One hundred sixty thyroid surgeries were done. Pyramidal lobe was found in 70 patients (44.0%). The presence of the pyramidal lobe was most often associated with multinodular goitres 42 (61.8%) and least found in thyroids with malignant tumours 3 (4.4%). The pyramidal lobe originated commonly from the midline (50.0%) and least from the right (10.3%). The length of the pyramidal lobes ranged from 8 to 80 mm (average 50 mm) in males and 5 to 54 mm (average 42 mm) in females.
The presence of a pyramidal lobe is not uncommon in people of southwestern Nigeria with its morphologic and histologic profile akin to what obtains in other geographical locations of the world.

Rosai‐Dorfman disease in Malawi

Rosai‐Dorfman Disease (RDD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease with limited cases reported in sub‐Saharan Africa, potentially due to a lack of pathological services throughout the region. RDD diagnosis can be difficult, especially in resource‐limited setting, as symptoms can be nearly identical to more common causes of lymphadenopathy.

Effects of income and residential area on survival of patients with head and neck cancers following radiotherapy: working age individuals in Taiwan.

The five-year survival rate of head and neck cancer (HNC) after radiotherapy (RT) varies widely from 35% to 89%. Many studies have addressed the effect of socioeconomic status and urban dwelling on the survival of HNC, but a limited number of studies have focused on the survival rate of HNC patients after RT.During the period of 2000-2013, 40,985 working age individuals (20 < age  medium income group > low income group and northern > central > southern > eastern Taiwan. Patients with moderate income levels had a 36.9% higher risk of mortality as compared with patients with high income levels (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.369; p < 0.001). Patients with low income levels had a 51.4% greater risk of mortality than patients with high income levels (HR = 1.514, p < 0.001).In Taiwan, income and residential area significantly affected the survival rate of HNC patients receiving RT. The highest income level group had the best survival rate, regardless of the geographic area. The difference in survival between the low and high income groups was still pronounced in more deprived areas.

Education in ear and hearing care in remote or resource-constrained environments.

At the heart of surgical care needs to be the education and training of staff, particularly in the low-income and/or resource-poor setting. This is the primary means by which self-sufficiency and sustainability will ultimately be achieved. As such, training and education should be integrated into any surgical programme that is undertaken. Numerous resources are available to help provide such a goal, and an open approach to novel, inexpensive training methods is likely to be helpful in this type of setting.The need for appropriately trained audiologists in low-income countries is well recognised and clearly goes beyond providing support for ear surgery. However, where ear surgery is being undertaken, it is vital to have audiology services established in order to correctly assess patients requiring surgery, and to be able to assess and manage outcomes of surgery. The training requirements of the two specialties are therefore intimately linked.This article highlights various methods, resources and considerations, for both otolaryngology and audiology training, which should prove a useful resource to those undertaking and organising such education, and to those staff members receiving it.

Implementation and results of a surgical training programme for chronic suppurative otitis media in Cambodia.

Chronic suppurative otitis media is a massive public health problem in numerous low- and middle-income countries. Unfortunately, few low- and middle-income countries can offer surgical therapy.A six-month long programme in Cambodia focused on training local surgeons in type I tympanoplasty was instigated. Qualitative educational and quantitative surgical outcomes were evaluated in the 12 months following programme completion. A four-month long training programme in mastoidectomy and homograft ossiculoplasty was subsequently implemented, and the preliminary surgical and educational outcomes were reported.A total of 124 patients underwent tympanoplasty by the locally trained surgeons. Tympanic membrane closure at six weeks post-operation was 88.5 per cent. Pure tone audiometry at three months showed that 80.9 per cent of patients had improved hearing, with a mean gain of 17.1 dB. The trained surgeons reported high confidence in performing tympanoplasty. Early outcomes suggest the local surgeons can perform mastoidectomy and ossiculoplasty as safely as overseas-trained surgeons, with reported surgeon confidence reflecting these positive outcomes.The training programme has demonstrated success, as measured by surgeon confidence and operative outcomes. This approach can be emulated in other settings to help combat the global burden of chronic suppurative otitis media.