Management and outcomes following emergency surgery for traumatic brain injury – A multi-centre, international, prospective cohort study (the Global Neurotrauma Outcomes Study).

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for a significant amount of death and disability worldwide and the majority of this burden affects individuals in low-and-middle income countries. Despite this, considerable geographical differences have been reported in the care of TBI patients. On this background, we aim to provide a comprehensive international picture of the epidemiological characteristics, management and outcomes of patients undergoing emergency surgery for traumatic brain injury (TBI) worldwide. The Global Neurotrauma Outcomes Study (GNOS) is a multi-centre, international, prospective observational cohort study. Any unit performing emergency surgery for TBI worldwide will be eligible to participate. All TBI patients who receive emergency surgery in any given consecutive 30-day period beginning between 1st of November 2018 and 31st of December 2019 in a given participating unit will be included. Data will be collected via a secure online platform in anonymised form. The primary outcome measures for the study will be 14-day mortality (or survival to hospital discharge, whichever comes first). Final day of data collection for the primary outcome measure is February 13th. Secondary outcome measures include return to theatre and surgical site infection. This project will not affect clinical practice and has been classified as clinical audit following research ethics review. Access to source data will be made available to collaborators through national or international anonymised datasets on request and after review of the scientific validity of the proposed analysis by the central study team.

An International Collaborative Study on Surgical Education for Quality Improvement (ASSURED): A Project by the 2017 International Society of Surgery (ISS/SIC) Travel Scholars International Working Group

Background: There is a huge difference in the standard of surgical training in different countries around the world. The disparity is more obvious in the various models of surgical training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) compared to high-income countries. Although the global training model of surgeons is evolving from an apprenticeship model to a competency-based model with additional training using simulation, the training of surgeons in LMICs still lacks a standard pathway of training.

Methods: This is a qualitative, descriptive, and collaborative study conducted in six LMICs across Asia, Africa, and South America. The data were collected on the status of surgical education in these countries as per the guidelines designed for the ASSURED project along with plans for quality improvement in surgical education in these countries.

Results: The training model in these selected LMICs appears to be a hybrid of the standard models of surgical training. The training models were tailored to the country’s need, but many fail to meet international standards. There are many areas identified that can be addressed in order to improve the quality of surgical education in these countries.

Conclusions: Many areas need to be improved for a better quality of surgical training in LMICs. There is a need of financial, technical, and research support for the improvement in these models of surgical education in LMICs.

Wide Dissection and Intercostal Vessel Division Allows for Repair of Hypoplastic Aortic Arch Through Thoracotomy.

The approach to coarctation of the aorta with hypoplastic aortic arch is controversial. We evaluated the outcomes in patients with coarctation of the aorta with or without hypoplastic aortic arch operated through a posterior left lateral thoracotomy.
A retrospective cohort of patients with aortic coarctation, who underwent repair between January 2009 and October 2017, was analyzed. Preoperative, postoperative, and echocardiographic characteristics were reviewed. Statistical analysis examined survival, freedom from reintervention, and freedom from recoarctation.
In nine years, 389 patients who underwent surgical treatment for coarctation of the aorta were identified; after exclusion criteria and complete echocardiographic reports, 143 patients were analyzed, of which 29 patients had hypoplastic aortic arch. The modification in the extended end-to-end anastomosis technique was a wide dissection and mobilization of the descending aorta that was achieved due to the ligation and division of 3 to 5 intercostal vessels. In both groups, patients were close to one month of age and had a median weight of 3.6 and 3.4 kg for hypoplastic and nonhypoplastic arch, respectively. In postoperative events, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups ( P = .57 for renal failure, P = .057 for transient, nonpermanent neurologic events, P = .496 for sepsis), as for intensive care unit ( P = .502) and total in-hospital stay ( P = .929). There was one case of postoperative mortality in each group and both were associated with noncardiac comorbidities. Regarding survival (log-rank = 0.060), freedom from reintervention (log-rank = 0.073), and freedom from recoarctation (log-rank = 0.568), there was no statistically significant difference between the groups.
We believe that it is the modified technique that allowed greater mobilization of the aorta and successful repair of hypoplastic arch through thoracotomy, without an increase in paraplegia or other adverse outcomes.

Early detection and treatment strategies for breast cancer in low-income and upper middle-income countries: a modelling study.

Poor breast cancer survival in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be attributed to advanced-stage presentation and poor access to systemic therapy. We aimed to estimate the outcomes of different early detection strategies in combination with systemic chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in LMICs.We adapted a microsimulation model to project outcomes of three early detection strategies alone or in combination with three systemic treatment programmes beyond standard of care (programme A): programme B was endocrine therapy for all oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive cases; programme C was programme B plus chemotherapy for ER-negative cases; programme D was programme C plus chemotherapy for advanced ER-positive cases. The main outcomes were reductions in breast cancer-related mortality and lives saved per 100 000 women relative to the standard of care for women aged 30-49 years in a low-income setting (East Africa; using incidence data and life tables from Uganda and data on tumour characteristics from various East African countries) and for women aged 50-69 years in a middle-income setting (Colombia).In the East African setting, relative mortality reductions were 8-41%, corresponding to 23 (95% uncertainty interval -12 to 49) to 114 (80 to 138) lives saved per 100 000 women over 10 years. In Colombia, mortality reductions were 7-25%, corresponding to 32 (-29 to 70) to 105 (61 to 141) lives saved per 100 000 women over 10 years.The best projected outcomes were in settings where access to both early detection and adjuvant therapy is improved. Even in the absence of mammographic screening, improvements in detection can provide substantial benefit in settings where advanced-stage presentation is common.Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington Cancer Consortium Cancer Center Support Grant of the US National Institutes of Health.