China has great potential for engaging in global actions on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) control. This study aims to summarize the process of global AMR governance and provide relevant policy recommendations on how China could take more initiative in the global AMR governance. We searched for academic articles and official document published or issued before December 2020 in e-journal databases, official websites of major organizations, and the relevant national ministries. This review revealed that global action on AMR control has experienced three stages: (1) The beginning stage (1980s and 1990s) when actions were mainly sponsored by high-income countries and AMR surveillance was focused on hospitals; (2) The rapid development stage (2000–2010) when global AMR governance began to concentrate on joint actions in multi-sectors, and developing countries were gradually involved in global actions; (3) The comprehensive stage (2011 to present) when global actions on AMR have covered various fields in different countries. China’s AMR governance has fallen behind at the beginning but recently began to catch up with the global trend. The central government should take a far-fetched view, act decisively and positively towards the global efforts of addressing AMR to play a more active and greater role on the international stage. View Full-Text
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the most deadly cancer in pediatric age group. In China, thousands of children are diagnosed with CNS tumors every year. Despite the improving socioeconomic status and availability of medical expertise within the country, unique challenges remain for the delivery of pediatric neuro‐oncology service. In this review, we discuss the existing hurdles for improving the outcome of children with CNS tumors in China. Need for precise disease burden estimation, lack of intra‐ and inter‐hospital collaborative networks, high probability of treatment abandonment, along with financial toxicities from treatment represent the key challenges that Chinese healthcare providers encounter. The tremendous opportunities for advancing the status of pediatric neuro‐oncology care in and beyond the country are explored.
Objective: To test the following hypothesis: the ratio of shock index to pulse oxygen saturation can better predict the mortality of emergency trauma patients than shock index.
Methods: 1723 Patients of trauma admitted to the Emergency Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from 1 November 2016 to 30 November 2019 were retrospectively evaluated. We defined SS as the ratio of SI to SPO2, and the mortality of trauma patients in the emergency department as end-point of outcome. We calculated the crude HR of SS and adjusted HR with the adjustment for risk factors including sex, age, revised trauma score (RTS) by Cox regression model. ROC curve analyses were performed to compare the area under the curve (AUC) of SS and SI.
Results: The crude HR of SS was: 4.31, 95%CI (2.89-6.42) and adjusted HR: 3.01, 95%CI(1.86-4.88); ROC curve analyses showed that AUC of SS was higher than that of shock index (SI), and the difference was statistically significant: 0.69, 95%CI(0.55-0.83) vs 0.65, 95%CI (0.51-0.79), P = 0.001.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which appeared in early December 2019, had an atypical viral pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei, China. And there is a high risk of global proliferation and impact. The sudden increase in confirmed cases has brought tremendous stress and anxiety to frontline surgical staff. The results showed that the anxiety and depression of surgical staff during the outbreak period were significantly higher and mental health problems appeared, so psychological interventions are essential.
Background: While the cities in China in which spinal cord injury (SCI) studies have been conducted previously are at the forefront of medical care, northwest China is relatively underdeveloped economically, and the epidemiological characteristics of SCI have rarely been reported in this region.
Methods: The SCI epidemiological survey software developed was used to analyze the data of patients treated with SCI from 2014 to 2018. The sociodemographic characteristics of patients, including name, age, sex, and occupation, were recorded. The following medical record data, obtained from physical and radiographic examinations, were included in the study: data on the cause of injury, fracture location, associated injuries, and level of injury. Neurological function was evaluated using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale. In addition, the treatment and complications during hospitalization were documented.
Results: A total of 3487 patients with SCI with a mean age of 39.5 ± 11.2 years were identified in this study, and the male to female ratio was 2.57:1. The primary cause of SCI was falls (low falls 47.75%, high falls 37.31%), followed by traffic accidents (8.98%), and impact with falling objects (4.39%). Of all patients, 1786 patients (51.22%) had complications and other injuries. According to the ASIA impairment scale, the numbers of grade A, B, C, and D injuries were 747 (21.42%), 688 (19.73%), 618 (17.72%), and 1434 (41.12%), respectively. During the hospitalization period, a total of 1341 patients experienced complications, with a percentage of 38.46%. Among all complications, pulmonary infection was the most common (437, 32.59%), followed by hyponatremia (326, 24.31%), bedsores (219, 16.33%), urinary tract infection (168, 12.53%), deep venous thrombosis (157, 11.71%), and others (34, 2.53%). Notably, among 3487 patients with SCI, only 528 patients (15.14%) received long-term rehabilitation treatment.
Conclusion: The incidence of SCI in northwest China was on the rise with higher proportion in males; fall and the MCVs were the primary causes of SCI. The occupations most threatened by SCI are farmers and workers. The investigation and analysis of the epidemiological characteristics of SCI in respiratory complications are important factors leading to death after SCI, especially when the SCI occurs in the cervical spinal cord. Finally, the significance of SCI rehabilitation should be addressed.
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic originated in Wuhan, China and spread rapidly worldwide, leading the World Health Organization to declare an official global COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. In Hong Kong, clinicians and other healthcare personnel collaborated closely to combat the outbreak of COVID-19 and minimize the cross-transmission of disease among hospital staff members. In the field of otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) and its various subspecialties, contingency plans were required for patient bookings in outpatient clinics, surgeries in operating rooms, protocols in wards and other services. Infected patients may shed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) particles into their environments via body secretions. Therefore, otolaryngologists and other healthcare personnel in this specialty face a high risk of contracting COVID-19 and must remain vigilant when performing examinations and procedures involving the nose and throat. In this article, we share our experiences of the planning and logistics undertaken to provide safe and efficient OHNS practices over the last 2 months, during the COVID-19 pandemic. We hope that our experiences will serve as pearls for otolaryngologists and other healthcare personnel working in institutes that serve large numbers of patients every day, particularly with regard to the sharing of clinical and administrative tasks during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Rationale: Currently, COVID-19 has made a significant impact on many countries in the world. However, there have been no reported cases of pulmonary lobectomy with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection. We are the first to report such a case.
Patient concerns: We report a 63-year-old Wuhan male patient with smoking history of 40 cigarettes per day for 40 years. He sought medical consultation for right lower lung nodules found by CT scan.
Diagnoses and interventions: The patient’s postoperative pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma of the right lower lung. On the fourth day after the operation, the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test showed a positive result. After the operation, we routinely give symptomatic treatments such as anti-infection, nebulization and oxygen inhalation. We also change antibiotics several times depending on the patient’s condition.
Outcomes: The patient’s condition continued to deteriorate. On the fifth day after surgery, the patient died despite medical treatment.
Lessons: We are the first to report the diagnosis and treatment process of patients with COVID-19 during perioperative period of lobectomy. It provides a case for the postoperative management of such patients.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of bariatric surgery on gallstone disease in obese patients.
This large cohort retrospective study was conducted based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All patients 18-55 years of age with a diagnosis code for obesity (ICD-9-CM codes 278.00-278.02 or 278.1) between 2003 and 2010 were included. Patients with a history of gallstone disease and hepatic malignancies were excluded. The patients were divided into non-surgical and bariatric surgery groups. Obesity surgery was defined by ICD-9-OP codes. We also enrolled healthy civilians as the general population. The primary end point was defined as re-hospitalization with a diagnosis of gallstone disease after the index hospitalization. All patients were followed until the end of 2013, a biliary complication occurred, or death.
Two thousand three hundred seventeen patients in the bariatric surgery group, 2331 patients in the non-surgical group, and 8162 patients in the general population were included. Compared to the non-surgery group (2.79%), bariatric surgery (2.89%) did not elevate the risk of subsequent biliary events (HR = 1.075, p = 0.679). Compared to the general population (1.15%), bariatric surgery group had a significantly higher risk (HR = 4.996, p < 0.001). In the bariatric surgery group, female gender (HR = 1.774, p = 0.032) and a restrictive procedure (HR = 1.624, p = 0.048) were risk factors for gallstone disease.
The risk for gallstone disease did not increase after bariatric surgery, although the risk was still higher than the general population. The benefit of concomitant cholecystectomy during bariatric surgery should be carefully evaluated.
To assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous short-segment pedicle instrumentation compared with conventionally open short-segment pedicle instrumentation and provide recommendations for using these procedures to treat thoracolumbar fractures.
The Medline database, Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Clinical Trial Register, and Embase were searched for articles published. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs that compared percutaneous short-segment pedicle instrumentation to open short-segment pedicle instrumentation and provided data on safety and clinical effects were included. Demographic characteristics, clinical outcomes, radiological outcomes, and adverse events were manually extracted from all of the selected studies. Methodological quality of included studies using Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies scale and Cochrane collaboration’s tool for assessing the risk of bias by 2 reviewers independently.
Nine studies encompassing 433 patients met the inclusion criteria. Subgroup meta-analyses were performed according to the study design. The pooled results showed there were significant differences between the 2 techniques in short- and long-term visual analog scale, intraoperative blood loss, operative time, postoperative draining loss, hospital stay, and incision size, although there were no significant differences in postoperative radiological outcomes, Oswestry Disability Index, hospitalization cost, intraoperative fluoroscopy time, and adverse events.
Percutaneous short-segment pedicle instrumentation in cases with achieve satisfactory results, could replace in many cases extensive open surgery and not increased related complications. However, further high-quality RCTs are needed to assess the long-term outcome of patients between 2 techniques.
Salvage surgery is usually the only treatment for recurrent head and neck tumors but often poses a challenge to surgeons due to post-resected defects at 2 or more sites. Here we present the outcomes and rationale for reconstruction by a double-island anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap following the salvage surgery.Patients treated with double-island ALT free flaps in salvage surgery between September 2012 and January 2017 at West China Hospital, Sichuan University were retrospectively viewed.A total of 18 patients (15 males) underwent reconstruction with double-island ALT free flaps (range from 40 to 77 years old). All patients had recurrent tumors after surgery and/or chemoradiotherapy and were selected for salvage surgery by a multidisciplinary team. The flaps were initially harvested as 7 cm × 7 cm to 16 cm × 10 cm single blocks and then divided into double-island flaps with each individual paddle ranging from5 cm × 3 cm to 10 cm × 8 cm. The average flap thickness was 3.5 cm (range from 2 to 6 cm), and the average pedicle length was 8 cm (range from 6 to 10 cm). A total of 18 arteries and 32 veins were anastomosed. Three patients developed fistula, 1 developed flap failure due to thrombosis and was re-operated with a pedicle flap. One patient died of pulmonary infection 6 months after the operation.Flap reconstruction for complex head and neck defects after salvage surgery remains challenging, but double-island ALT free flap reconstruction conducted by a multidisciplinary team and experienced surgeons would have a role in this setting