An Endovascular Surgery Experience in Far-Forward Military Healthcare-A Case Series

Introduction: The advancement of interventional neuroradiology has drastically altered the treatment of stroke and trauma patients. These advancements in first-world hospitals, however, have rarely reached far forward military hospitals due to limitations in expertise and equipment. In an established role III military hospital though, these life-saving procedures can become an important tool in trauma care.

Materials and methods: We report a retrospective series of far-forward endovascular cases performed by 2 deployed dual-trained neurosurgeons at the role III hospital in Kandahar, Afghanistan during 2013 and 2017 as part of Operations Resolute Support and Enduring Freedom.

Results: A total of 15 patients were identified with ages ranging from 5 to 42 years old. Cases included 13 diagnostic cerebral angiograms, 2 extremity angiograms and interventions, 1 aortogram and pelvic angiogram, 1 bilateral embolization of internal iliac arteries, 1 lingual artery embolization, 1 administration of intra-arterial thrombolytic, and 2 mechanical thrombectomies for acute ischemic stroke. There were no complications from the procedures. Both embolizations resulted in hemorrhage control, and 1 of 2 stroke interventions resulted in the improvement of the NIH stroke scale.

Conclusions: Interventional neuroradiology can fill an important role in military far forward care as these providers can treat both traumatic and atraumatic cerebral and extracranial vascular injuries. In addition, knowledge and skill with vascular access and general interventional radiology principles can be used to aid in other lifesaving interventions. As interventional equipment becomes more available and portable, this relatively young specialty can alter the treatment for servicemen and women who are injured downrange.

Diagnosis and management of 365 ureteric injuries following obstetric and gynecologic surgery in resource-limited settings.

Ureteric injuries are among the most serious complications of pelvic surgery. The incidence in low-resource settings is not well documented.This retrospective review analyzes a cohort of 365 ureteric injuries with ureterovaginal fistulas in 353 women following obstetric and gynecologic operations in 11 countries in Africa and Asia, all low-resource settings. The patients with ureteric injury were stratified into three groups according to the initial surgery: (a) obstetric operations, (b) gynecologic operations, and (c) vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repairs.The 365 ureteric injuries in this series comprise 246 (67.4%) after obstetric procedures, 65 (17.8%) after gynecologic procedures, and 54 (14.8%) after repair of obstetric fistulas. Demographic characteristics show clear differences between women with iatrogenic injuries and women with obstetric fistulas. The study describes abdominal ureter reimplantation and other treatment procedures. Overall surgical results were good: 92.9% of women were cured (326/351), 5.4% were healed with some residual incontinence (19/351), and six failed (1.7%).Ureteric injuries after obstetric and gynecologic operations are not uncommon. Unlike in high-resource contexts, in low-resource settings obstetric procedures are most often associated with urogenital fistula. Despite resource limitations, diagnosis and treatment of ureteric injuries is possible, with good success rates. Training must emphasize optimal surgical techniques and different approaches to assisted vaginal delivery.

Surgical Site Infections Rates in More Than 13,000 Surgical Procedures in Three Cities in Peru: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a threat to patient safety. However, there are not available data on SSI rates stratified by surgical procedure (SP) in Peru.

METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2010, a cohort prospective surveillance study on SSIs was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in four hospitals in three cities of Peru. Data were recorded from hospitalized patients using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) methods and definitions for SSI. Surgical procedures (SPs) were classified into 4 types, according to ICD-9 criteria.

RESULTS: We recorded 352 SSIs, associated to 13,904 SPs (2.5%; CI, 2.3-2.8) SSI rates per type of SP were the following for this study’s Peruvian hospitals, compared with rates of the INICC and CDC-NHSN reports, respectively: 2.9% for appendix surgery (vs. 2.9% vs. 1.4%); 2.8% for gallbladder surgery (vs. 2.5% vs. 0.6%); 2.2% for cesarean section (vs. 0.7% vs. 1.8%); 2.8% for vaginal hysterectomy (vs. 2.0% vs. 0.9%).

CONCLUSIONS: Our SSIs rates were higher in all of the four analyzed types of SPs compared with CDC-NHSN, whereas compared with INICC, most rates were similar. This study represents an important advance in the knowledge of SSI epidemiology in Peru that will allow us to introduce targeted interventions.